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Case Study

City of Calgary, Alberta

The City of Calgary provides water and wastewater services for more than 1 million people in the Greater Calgary area. For many municipalities, accurate and regular condition assessment of large-diameter pressure pipelines has become more important in recent years as these assets continue to age and risk of failure increases.

In Calgary, three critical feedermains (14th Street/North Hillhurst, John Laurie and Top Hill) are each constructed of different materials: lined cylinder pipe (LCP), prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) and bar wrapped pipe (BWP). The pipes range from 750mm (30-inch) to 900mm (35- inch) in diameter.

Project Details

PureRobotics® electromagnetic condition assessment

PureRobotics® HD-CCTV inspection

Risk Prioritization

Pipe Material
Inspection Length
4.74 km (2.9 miles)
750mm-900mm (29-35 inch)
Transmission Type

Project Highlights

Condition assessment on 2.92 miles (4.7 kms) of feedermain pipes

Data identified 8 pipes with electromagnetic anomalies consistent with broken pressing wire wraps

HD-CTTV identified 3 pipes with damaged internal mortar and exposed cylinder

In an annual condition assessment program, The City inspects its PCCP, BWP and LCP for deterioration. By identifying isolated pipe sections with deterioration, the City is able to make selective repairs in favor of full-scale replacement, which comes at a high cost and may replace sections with significant remaining useful life.

In data collected from more than 14,000 miles of pressure pipe condition assessment, Pure Technologies has found that only a small percentage of pipes (less than 5 percent) are in need of repair and therefore have years of service left. Condition assessment data also suggests that pipe distress is localized, and significant ROI can be achieved by locating and addressing isolated problems through structural inspection.

To inspect the three feedermains, the City deployed PureRobotics®, a tethered robotic system that delivers live video, and is equipped with electromagnetic technology that can be configured to inspect a variety of pipelines and materials with different operational conditions.

In BWP, the technology identifies and locates broken bars and areas of corrosion on the steel cylinder, which are the main indication this type of pipe will eventually fail. Although BWP looks similar to PCCP in cross section, the design and materials are significantly different.

PCCP is a concrete pipe that remains under compression because of the prestressing wires, with the thin-gauge steel cylinder acting as a water membrane. With BWP, the cylinder plays a much larger role in the structural integrity of the pipe. BWP is essentially designed as a steel pipe with mild steel used to manufacture the steel cylinder and steel bars. PCCP utilizes mild steel for the cylinder, but high strength steel is utilized for the wire, which is wrapped under high tension. As a result, the bar in BWP and wire in PCCP respond differently to environmental conditions that facilitate corrosion.

The high strength steel wire in PCCP is smaller in diameter and wrapped under higher tension, therefore corrosion makes it quite vulnerable to breakage. The mild steel bars in BWP are thicker in diameter and wrapped under less tension, therefore corrosion takes significantly longer to lead to breakage. The type of failure is also much different; PCCP tends to fail suddenly with a large dispersion of energy. This type of failure is less likely in BWP where failures are similar to steel pipe with long periods of leakage occurring prior to rupture. Because of the differences in make-up, BWP and PCCP are inspected using unique methods to determine their structural condition.

Of the 694 pipes cumulatively inspected over the 4.74 kilometers, eight (8) pipes were identified with electromagnetic anomalies consistent with broken prestressing wraps. Additionally, two (2) pipes were found with an anomalous signal not characteristic of broken bar wraps that can be attributed to a change in the pipe cylinder.

Evaluation of the John Laurie Boulevard Feedermain concluded that one (1) pipe was identified to have an anomalous signal likely caused by a non-uniform cylinder. Images obtained from the robot indicated this pipe has damaged internal mortar and exposed cylinder. Additionally, two (2) pipes on this feedermain were identified to have damaged internal mortar and exposed cylinder, but did not contain anomalous signals.

The City of Calgary was pleased with the results, and through condition assessment, has been able to identify and address individual distressed pipe sections on otherwise serviceable feedermains. This has allowed the City to avoid potential ruptures, while increasing service reliability and useful life of the feedermains.