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Case Study

In order to reduce replacement costs and failures, a mid-size Mid-Atlantic utility engaged Xylem for help developing a machine learning approach to building a focused and cost-effective pipeline renewal strategy.

A mid-sized Mid-Atlantic utility with a reputation for taking a proactive and focused approach to continuously improving service reliability to their 270,000 customers was facing all too common situation. More than 1,000 miles of water mains across their system, with an average age of about 50 years. This had led to an increase in water main breaks, and so they started seeking innovative strategies that would improve service reliability while minimizing repair and replacement costs.

THE CHALLENGE

With water main breaks increasing, the customers served by the utility were challenged with unpredictable service outages and costly repairs as well as highly disruptive road closures. They desired to take a more proactive approach to prevent main breaks and improve their customer level of service (LoS) by focusing on the pipes that needed the greatest attention.

Previous experience in working with Xylem to manage their PCCP (prestressed concrete cylinder pipe) inventory led the utility to seek out a better replacement prioritization strategy than traditional techniques such as age and break history.

What solutions did Xylem and the utility come up with to solve this challenge? Find out and explore the results we achieved together by downloading the full case study below.

Project Highlights

Will help the utility lower their annual costs related to pipeline replacement from $90 million to just $20 million while achieving a dramatic four-fold reduction in failures.

Developed a plan to reduce customer outages and improve service reliability, while cutting replacement spending by over 70% compared to other prioritization methods.

Developed a real-time, field mobile tracking application to improve break record accuracy that reduces labor time required to update their Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and their geographic information system (GIS), as well as improve the output of the AI model

Services Provided

• Pipeline failure and risk analysis
• Mobile field data collection application
• Data integration with the utility’s existing systems

Case Study

In order to maximize their existing capital assets, reducing overflows and optimizing overall operation efficiency, the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati (MSD) engaged Xylem in utilizing BLU-X, a drainage network optimization solution that uses a real-time decision support system consisting of smart sensors and actuators that track conveyance capacity.

Cincinnati’s sewers discharge an average of 11.5 billion gallons of combined sewage every year into the Ohio River and its tributary streams within Cincinnati’s urban watershed.

In 2002, the EPA entered into a federal consent decree with MSD, mandating the elimination of sanitary sewer overflows and significant mitigation of combined sewer overflows into receiving waterways. Engineers estimated the cost to mitigate the sewer overflows at $3.1 billion, an unacceptable capital expense to pass along to MSD’s customers.

THE CHALLENGE

Recognizing the generally inadequate stormwater management capabilities of their existing combined sewer system, MSD prepared a comprehensive wet weather improvement plan. MSD recognized that full sewer separation and deep tunnel construction are massive capital investments that have a very low return on investment because they create only episodic benefits during peak flow events and are single-use assets with little additional community wealth creation.

Instead, MSD’s objective was to maximize existing capital assets — such as sewer interceptors, storage and treatment facilities, and pump-stations — to reduce overflows and gain system-wide benefits through advanced control logic that will optimally operate MSD’s urban watershed.

What solutions did Xylem and MSD come up with to solve this challenge? Find out and explore the results we achieved together by downloading the full case study below.

Project Highlights

Overflow volumes reduced by 247 million gallons annually

More than a 90% reduction in cost compared to initial capital work estimated at $38 million

CSO mitigation achieved at a price of less than$0.01/gallon

Services Provided

• BLU-X real-time decision support system (RT-DSS) to manage storage and conveyance
• RT-DSS integrated into MSD’s existing SCADA and IT networks
• All sensor data presented on one unified platform

Case Study

In order to get a better understanding of the infiltration and inflow into their newly separated sanitary sewers, Grand Rapids engaged Xylem in utilizing BLU-X, a real-time decision support system consisting of smart sensors and actuators that track conveyance capacity.

Grand Rapids, MI is a community that has garnered accolades in the clean water industry for taking significant proactive steps to improve its sewer system. In the early 1990s, “River City” took the initiative to invest in transforming its collection system from a combined sewer system to separate storm and sanitary sewers. By moving from a single pipe for both stormwater and wastewater conveyance to separate pipes, the City avoided the introduction of sewage into its waterways, reducing overflows and subsequent pollution into the landmark Grand River that flows to Lake Michigan 40 miles downstream.

THE CHALLENGE

After nearly 25 years, Grand Rapids finished retrofitting its combined sewer overflow system to a separate sanitary and stormwater system, completing its long-term control plan (LTCP) in 2015. But now, the City needed to get a better understanding of the infiltration and inflow into these newly separated sanitary sewers to ensure compliance with a mandate from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This mandate allowed them zero overflow events of any kind, except as part of a wet weather event of a magnitude in excess of a 24-hour, 25-year storm.

For compliance purposes, the City needed analytic data to certify performance and understand how the system behaved during a wide variety of wet and dry weather conditions. While gathering this information, the City was also presented with a hydraulic report stating that areas of the community were experiencing excessive surcharging and flooding. They suspected otherwise, but needed proof to answer regulators, as mitigation to eliminate the surcharging and flooding was estimated to cost much as $1 billion; a capital expense the city could ill afford.

What solutions did Xylem and Grand Rapids come up with to solve this challenge? Find out and explore the results we achieved together by downloading the full case study below.

Project Highlights

Data demonstrated that the infiltration and inflow problem could be solved for $30-50 million as opposed to the original $1 billion estimate

Real-time decision support system brought in to help the Environmental Services Department for the sanitary system separation

City has expanded the sensor network to more parts of the system

Services Provided

• BLU-X real-time decision support system (RT-DSS) deployed to help characterize infiltration and inflow performance on sanitary lines
• All sensor data presented on one unified platform
• Integration into Grand Rapids’s existing IT networks

Utilities can save their communities substantial amounts of money, reduce the need for unaffordable rate increases or financing arrangements, and improve the environmental sustainability of their operations – all while maintaining and enhancing system control.

Around the world, critical valves are in poor repair, or even inoperable. When critical valves fail, managers have effectively lost control of their system, increasing vulnerability to water main breaks or any other system hazard. Once valves have failed, utilities have traditionally sought to replace them, often at great cost, both in terms of time and expense.

But what if there were another way? It turns out there is a far more economical, less risky, and more sustainable option: preventative maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation. High performing utilities are turning away from the wasteful practice of replacing valves that can be restored to full function, instead engaging experts in asset renewal to extend the life of those assets at a substantially lower cost.

This white paper will highlight:

  • identifying the true cost of large valve replacements
  • understanding the cost savings of a repair vs replace strategy
  • the benefits of performing routine critical valve assessments
  • what to look for in a valve assessment partner

With advancements in technology and a willingness to develop proactive pipeline integrity programs, utilities can successfully reduce failures, mitigate risk, reduce capital expenditures, and increase confidence in the overall operation of their force mains.

New standards of best practice for force main management involve a variety of methods and technologies to provide data and information with which to make decisions. Utilities can now often perform a detailed condition assessment while the force main remains in service.

There is no “one-size-fits-all” way of assessing force mains. Any approach should be tailored to risk tolerance, material, diameter and past failure history. Savvy utility managers are turning to programs that reduce damage to assets, prioritize investment to minimize community impact of asset failure, and reduce the consequence of failure by enabling system control.

This white paper will highlight:

  • how to develop a risk-based program
  • the most common modes of failure for force mains
  • how to define which of the three approaches to proactively assessing force mains best fits your goals and risk-tolerance
  • how utilities are finding success using these approaches to: prevent failures, reduce capital expenditures, mitigate risk, optimize budget allocation, and increase confidence and level of service.

Case Study

In order to avoid the cost associated with large valve replacement, the city of Grand Rapids engaged Xylem to assess the true condition of 20 large valves and determine if they could be rehabilitated or repaired instead.

The City of Grand Rapids is the second largest water system in Michigan and delivers clean drinking water to the Grand Rapids area using Lake Michigan as its water source. The Grand Rapids Water System operates about 1,250 miles of pipelines, 31,000 system valves, and over 1,300 large system valves (16 inches and larger). Over the last few years, the operation and maintenance of the large valves had declined due to focus being placed on other critical priorities. Without a consistent exercise routine for critical valves, the utility found that many of these valves were inoperable and, as a result, began to seek funding for valve replacements.

THE CHALLENGE

Grand Rapids was aware of a long segment of transmission line that could not be isolated due to inoperable valves. To regain control of the line, the City replaced five large valves at an average cost of $125,000 per valve, each taking an average of one week to replace. This amount of work and cost was a wake-up call that compelled Grand Rapids to find alternate methods of rehabilitating their valve assets.

Xylem’s experience has shown that on average, 60 percent of valves in a water system are operable, meaning that 40 percent are either inoperable, not locatable, or in the wrong position. Statistically, this meant that with 1,300 valves in Grand Rapids’ system, around 500 of them could have some sort of issue. With limited information on which ones required attention and a limited capital budget for asset replacement, the City would need a more focused approach help them make repair or remediation decisions.

What solutions did Xylem and Grand Rapids come up with to solve this challenge? Find out and explore the results we achieved together by downloading the full case study below.

Project Highlights

The City saved more than $800k by assessing and repairing infrastructure rather than replacing – a cost savings of over 90%

8 critical valves restored to full operability for less than the cost of replacing just one valve

60% of the assessed valves were working properly, allowing operational expenditures to be allocated elsewhere

Services Provided

• Valve assessment – assessed 20 large valves in the transmission system
• Valve repair – repaired and restored eight critical valves to full operability
• Valve rehabilitation – rehabilited one inoperable 36″ gate valve

pipe_diver

On Thursday May 17, thought-leaders, leading utilities, and other industry experts, came together for Xylem’s Modernizing Water Infrastructure Workshop in Laurel, MD. Like Infrastructure Week, the event served as a platform for innovators to connect, discuss, and inspire water industry professionals to solve the problems associated with managing water infrastructure. If you were unable to attend, here are some of the highlights of the day.

From Manure To Modern

The morning session focused on utilities, and began with a keynote presentation from industry visionary, George Hawkins, who provided an energetic analogy on how the manure crisis of the 1800s compares to our current water crisis. While the common person only saw the problem of horse manure, the engineers of the 1800s saw the potential for change and created the car, which eliminated the problem while increasing productivity and reducing costs. That’s what we, as an industry, need to focus on as we modernize water infrastructure — seeing the potential for greatness and improvement through innovation.

Hawkins went on to discuss how we report efficiency. If everything is measured in a productivity approach, seeking additional funding becomes easier. Money has gone farther than ever before in the water infrastructure industry because of the advancements in technology that allow us to work more efficiently and accurately. People are prepared to invest in something that matters to them, especially when they understand that the current monies are going further, and you can prove it. Listen to part of Hawkins’ presentation:

100 Years of Continuous Improvement

Following Hawkins’ passionate keynote address, we heard from Glen Diaz, Division Manager of Water/Wastewater Systems Assessment at WSSC. As WSSC (Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission) celebrates their 100-year anniversary, Diaz reflected on the advancements in technology through the years.

Even in the past 10 years, things have greatly improved in the water industry. Diaz cited the 66” water main break in Bethesda, MD in 2008 and how current technology can aid in preventing future incidents. Diaz went on to discuss how most PCCP failures are due to broken wires and how noisy pipes are typically problem pipes.

However, now, WSSC workers receive mobile alerts, through the implementation of Pure Technologies AFO system, as soon as wire breaks occur so they can address any cause for concern. This system has already helped WSSC avert 20 failure events to date, a $21 million dollar savings on the conservative side! See Diaz’s presentation here:

With Challenge, Comes Major Opportunity

After hearing from WSSC, we heard from Jody Caldwell, Asset Management Director for Great Lakes Water Authority (GLWA), on building an asset management program from the (under) ground up.

Caldwell began with an overview of some of the organizational challenges GLWA is experiencing being a relatively new utility. He talked about the process GLWA went through putting together a 10-year strategic roadmap focused on continuous improvement to overcome the challenges and build a utility for the future. Caldwell went on to discuss GLWA’s pipeline risk management strategy, which uses a quantitative, risk-based analysis to drive decisions. This tiered approach allows them to easily calculate their risk return on investment and ultimately, become a best-in-class pipeline management system. Catch the end of Caldwell’s presentation, as well as the Q&A session.

Extreme Preparation for Extreme Weather

After a brief networking break, there was a roundtable discussion that focused on how leading utilities dealt with the extreme weather conditions this past January. The roundtable featured (from left to right) Joseph Mantua, Deputy General Manager Operations at WSSC; Carlos A. Espinosa, Chief of the Office Of Asset Management at Baltimore City Department of Public Works; and Buddy Morgan, General Manager at Montgomery Water Works (Alabama). Who said the South doesn’t experience cold weather.

The discussion began with the question, “Were there particular pipe materials you found to be problematic during the extreme winter, and if so, what were they?” For the City of Montgomery, AL, cast iron mains had the most problems. Baltimore City was no different, reporting that 98% of the water main breaks were in cast iron pipes, the majority of which were 12” or smaller. WSSC confirmed the cast iron trend, with the majority of breaks occurring in 6 or 8 inch diameter pipes.

In order to prepare for next winter, the utilities agreed for the need to ensure that all their equipment is in working order ahead of time, and have conversations with their crews and contractors to make sure they’re prepared to respond, and recognize the need for additional support services and how to best utilize them. Additionally, the panel agreed that social media played a crucial role in real-time communications with customers, aiding them in being proactive with the media, and helping to communicate status updates. Watch the beginning portion of the roundtable discussion:

The discussion moved on to how to keep employees engaged during extreme weather conditions. Aside from the generous overtime benefits, WSSC brought hot meals to workers, while Alabama Water Works limited hours per week to 65 with 24 hours off before coming back. They also held celebratory cookouts once the weather warmed up.

Be Best-In-Class

After lunch, the afternoon sessions focused on technologies and management best practices. Pure’s very own Mike Higgins, Senior Vice President, Americas, talked about buried infrastructure philosophies utilities can use to manage their most valuable assets. Mike kicked-off his presentation by sharing statistics from the 2017 Infrastructure Report Card from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

Following these eye-opening numbers, Higgins shared his insights on success for professionals in the water industry.
Key questions utilities need to answer include:

  • Why do you want to assess your pipeline?
  • What are the goals for your project or program?

 

Typically, the answers should focus on one or more of the following areas:

1) Averting pipeline failure
2) Reducing pipeline risk
3) Extending the life of an asset
4) Increasing sustainability
5) Optimizing CAPEX/TOTEX (capital/total expenditure)

Higgins then shared his secret recipe for the 10 key ingredients to be a best-in-class utility:
1) Focus on operations excellence
2) Coordinate with all key stakeholders
3) Perform necessary Public Relations
4) Create a clearly defined team across departments and disciplines
5) Always aspire towards total pipeline management
6) Prepare for emergencies, they will occur
7) Be opportunistic
8) Continue to innovate
9) Understand limitations of innovative approaches
10) Keep your boots on the ground (maximize the amount of inspected pipe)
 
He concluded his presentation talking about the importance of monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs) and keeping senior leadership engaged. Watch Higgins’ presentation:

The 4th Industrial Revolution

Richard Loeffler IV, Client Solutions Architect at Emnet, then reminded us that the number one criteria for where cities locate is the access to water. Loeffler also stated that we are in the midst of a 4th industrial revolution—IoT (Internet of Things) is changing the way we live, work, and play, and is transforming the fundamental economic cost structure of water and related civic works.

He used the example of South Bend, IN, to illustrate just how effective IoT and RTDSS (real-time decision support systems) can be. Ultimately, it’s all about environmental stewardship — it’s not just about saving money, but about doing the right thing for the world that we live in. View Loeffler’s presentation:

Smart Water

Following Loeffler’s informative presentation, Bridget Berardinelli, VP Product Management And Continuous Improvement for Xylem, stated how smart meters and applying analytics can help utilities generate real results. Berardinelli began by explaining how Sensus develops advanced technology solutions that enable the intelligent use of critical resources.

She covered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and explained how to leverage it in order to increase operational efficiencies and improve scalability and flexibility. By delivering machine learning and analytics using a programmatic approach, Sensus is able to inform operational interventions that transform how water utilities operate. View her presentation:

Our Newest Solution

Concluding Berardinelli’s presentation, we heard from Pure Technologies Area Regional Manager, Susan Donnally, on how to manage large diameter water transmission mains. She began her presentation with a discussion on pipeline risk prioritization, stating that using data to drive decisions is a quintessential part of moving towards a proactive asset management approach. She then dove into why pipes fail; noting that age alone is a poor indicator of pipe condition. While there is no singular technology that can identify all of the indicators of pipe deterioration, a holistic, risk-based approach can help.

Donnally then moved on to highlight some of Pure’s latest technology innovations:

  • SmartBall® – in addition to leak and gas pocket detection, the tool now provides mapping, which combines data collected during an inspection with known, aboveground locations and pipeline drawings to create a field-generated GIS map of a pipeline.
  • PipeDiver® – Pure’s free-swimming condition assessment tool is now available with video and can easily correlate the data you’re getting from electromagnetics with actual footage.

 

Additionally, Donnally had a huge reveal! She introduced Pure’s newest PipeDiver solution, the PipeDiver UltraTM (currently in the beta testing phase with a couple of clients), which features high-resolution wall condition information for metallic pipes, such as cast iron, ductile iron, and steel, and is as easy to deploy as the existing PipeDiver. Watch her presentation:

You’re Not Going to Start with Perfection

Vice President of PureAnalytics, Travis Wagner, gave the final presentation of the day on managing distribution systems.

He truly engaged the audience by asking attendees to raise their hands if:

  • They saw a need or value in a pipeline renewal program
  • They agreed that a 10-20% efficiency in renewal programs is OK
  • They thought customer affordability was an issue
  • They had trouble with retirements and recruiting

 
Not surprisingly, most hands were raised! From there, Wagner went on to urge everyone to update their approach.

Utilities need to start asking themselves the following questions:

  • What is the current state of my assets?
  • What is my required level of service?
  • Which assets are critical to sustained performance?
  • What are my best O&M and CIP investment strategies?
  • What is my best long-term funding strategy?

 
Wagner concluded this portion of the presentation with a quote that all utilities should follow: “You’re not going to start with perfection, the goal is to build toward becoming better.”

Next, Wagner moved on to discuss risk management, consequence probability analysis, data collection, and risk mitigation. It was truly an eye-opening presentation:

The day concluded with demonstrations of all the latest technology available to utilities, including a 108” PipeDiver, SoundPrint® AFO system, Sensus meters, Visenti software demos, not to mention some great networking.

Want to learn more about our Modernizing Water Infrastructure Workshop? Check out #H2018Workshop on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter.

 

While metallic rising mains have been historically difficult to manage, a risk-based approach increases confidence in the condition of the pipeline.

Nothing grabs headline news like the failure of a rising main, which can be extremely damaging to the environment and harmful to a utility’s reputation.

Historically, wastewater rising mains have been difficult to manage, especially those made with ferrous materials, where the failure method is slow when compared to concrete pressure pipe. As well, sewer rising mains have special operational challenges that don’t apply to gravity sewer mains as they typically cannot be taken out of service for inspection, and due to the presence of solids in the fluid, rising mains represent a far more abrasive environment than potable systems such that assessment methods for water mains may not be applicable.

The presence of pockets increases the potential of corrosion in metallic pipes.

Gas pockets are of significant concern in rising mains.

The primary failure mechanism of ferrous rising mains is due to internal corrosion. Gas pockets are of significant concern in rising mains, as concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas within wastewater can be subsequently converted to sulfuric acid by bacteria in the slime layer on the pipe wall. This may cause corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe’s wall.

Therefore, a first step in assessing rising main condition should be the identification of gas pocket locations within the pipeline.

Pure Technologies has performed an analysis of rising mains inspected using acoustic based technologies in order to better characterize the frequency and location of gas pockets. Based on the analysis, it was found that 72% of gas pockets were not at known high points or air release valves, therefore, the most precise way to identify gas pockets within a rising main is through the implementation of inline acoustic inspection technologies.

The collection of gas pocket locations alone will not indicate the condition of the pipeline, but instead identifies locations where an increase in corrosion potential is observed. To ascertain the true condition of a pressure pipe, higher resolution electromagnetic technologies are required. These technologies measure pipe wall thickness in ferrous materials and broken wire or bar wraps in concrete pressure pipe.

Once the condition data is collected, advanced analytics can be applied to estimate the pipeline’s remaining useful life.

“Previous analyses involved straight-line assumptions – comparing the pipe wall thickness at installation against what it is today. However this doesn’t give an accurate picture of how pipes degrade…by using statistical modeling we can develop a more predictable degradation rate based off of over 14,000 miles of inspection data Pure has collected over the past 30+ years.”

Jennifer Steffens, Market Sector Leader, Water and Wastewater, Pure Technologies

Jennifer Steffens, Market Sector Leader, Water and Wastewater, Pure Technologies

Desktop studies are not always reliable.

While often the first thought is to replace the aging wastewater assets based on factors such as age and failure history, this option makes neither logical nor financial sense. With so many miles of buried pipelines and such limited capital budgets, utilities don’t have hundreds of millions to spend on replacing pipelines which still have remaining useful life.

At Pure Technologies, we believe there is a better way. A more feasible approach to ensuring the safe operation of rising mains is to undertake a risk-based approach to manage their operation. A risk-based approach will provide decision intelligence on which assets require rehabilitation or replacement to extend their useful life. Or which assets can be left alone.

Our approach is to help utilities evaluate the current state of their buried infrastructure and provide them with high confidence condition and operating data.   We then couple this with our years of extensive experience and project history (more than 12,000 kilometers of pressure pipe assessment) to provide utilities with actionable information, which allows them to make informed decisions as to the management of these critical assets.

Value of a risk-based approach to manage rising mains.

Utilities that embrace a risk-based approach to manage their rising main inventory have found that on average they can safely manage their rising mains for roughly 5 to 15 percent of the replacement cost. This pragmatic approach focuses on providing real condition data through assessment, which can be used to selectively renew isolated areas of damaged pipe in lieu of capital replacement.

Four steps to a risk-based approach.

At Pure, we recommend a risk-based approach to manage wastewater rising mains by focusing on four main areas:

  • Preliminary Risk Analysis
  • Internal Corrosion Potential Surveys using Inline Acoustics
  • Pipe Wall Assessment using Advanced Technologies
  • Condition Data Analysis and Advanced Risk Assessment

Most common reasons for pipeline failure.

Preliminary analysis.

Preliminary analysis includes collecting the right data to develop a prioritized plan for assessment, including the selection of appropriate technologies. To help make preliminary decisions, Pure collects all available information to understand the history of the pipeline and the likely failure modes. The data analysis will provide an understanding of the construction and context of the pipeline. Data of interest typically includes pipe characteristics, installation factors, environmental and performance-related data, operational data, and failure data.

Acoustic-based SmartBall® tool locates leaks and gas pockets

Acoustic-based SmartBall® tool used to locate leaks and gas pockets.

Sahara is an inline tethered tool that can locate leaks and gas pockets.

Internal corrosion potential survey.

An internal corrosion potential survey uses inline tools to locate gas pockets that can increase the potential for corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe wall. Pure Technologies typically deploys its acoustic-based SmartBall® leak and gas detection tool, as well as its tethered Sahara® leak and gas pocket detection platform to locate gas pockets in pressurized lines of all materials.

Pipe wall assessment.

While the presence of gas pockets may indicate areas of potential concern, it will not give a quantifiable answer as to the structural life of the pipe.

Pipe wall assessment is completed using a variety of technology solutions to identify defects and deterioration of the pipe wall in a variety of pipe materials. For pipe wall assessment of metallic rising mains, common internal electromagnetic technologies include the PipeWalker® and PureRobotics® platforms, as well as the free-swimming 24-detector PipeDiver® assessment tool, developed to identify electromagnetic anomalies indicating pipe wall loss.

PipeDiver® assessment tool, identifies electromagnetic anomalies indicating pipe wall loss.

Condition assessment analysis.

Condition data analysis and risk assessment evaluates how to safely renew or extend the life of rising mains. The risk evaluation considers not only the probability of failure (condition) of the rising main based on inspection data, but also the consequence of failure in order to make sound engineering decisions.

Understanding the risk of the pipeline is an important step in selecting and justifying the appropriate condition assessment methods. As the risk of the asset increases, the value of using high-resolution comprehensive assessment techniques increases. Higher resolution data results in more confident decision making, and would justify and prioritize the application of assessment techniques.

Diagnostic analytics helps utilities move risk assessment forward.

In the past, inspections were done, the data analysed, and the results passed on to the utility. Pure Technologies now offers a more holistic program of diagnostic analytics. This includes analysis of what caused the corrosion problem within the pipe wall, what the impact the corrosion has on the life of the pipeline, and a prescriptive analysis of how it needs to be repaired or rehabilitated.

The next step gathering momentum? Predictive analysis to elongate service life.

While metallic force mains have been historically difficult to manage, a risk-based approach increases confidence in the condition of the pipeline.

After the Clean Water Act of the 70s required control of wastewater discharge, an increase in force main construction and management across the country was observed. As these assets are now approaching 50 years in age, reducing the risk of failure has become a major regulatory priority. Nothing grabs headline news like the failure of a force main, which can be extremely damaging to the environment and harmful to a utility’s reputation.

Historically, wastewater force mains have been difficult to manage, especially those made with ferrous materials, where the failure method is slow when compared to concrete pressure pipe.

As well, pressurized sewer mains have special operational challenges that don’t apply to gravity sewer mains as they typically cannot be taken out of service for inspection, and due to the presence of solids in the fluid, force mains represent a far more abrasive environment than potable systems such that assessment methods for water mains may not be applicable.

The presence of gas pockets increases the potential of corrosion in metallic pipes.

Gas pockets are of significant concern in force mains.

The primary failure mechanism of ferrous force mains is due to internal corrosion. Gas pockets are of significant concern in force mains, as concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas within wastewater can be subsequently converted to sulfuric acid by bacteria in the slime layer on the pipe wall. This may cause corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe’s wall.

Therefore, a first step in assessing force main condition should be the identification of gas pocket locations within the pipeline.

Pure Technologies has performed an analysis of force mains inspected using acoustic based technologies in order to better characterize the frequency and location of gas pockets. Based on the analysis, it was found that 72% of gas pockets were not at known high points or air release valves, therefore, the most precise way to identify gas pockets within a force main is through the implementation of inline acoustic inspection technologies.

The collection of gas pocket locations alone will not indicate the condition of the pipeline, but instead identifies locations where an increase in corrosion potential is observed. To ascertain the true condition of a pressure pipe, higher resolution electromagnetic technologies are required. These technologies measure pipe wall thickness in ferrous materials and broken wire or bar wraps in concrete pressure pipe.

Once the condition data is collected, advanced analytics can be applied to estimate the pipeline’s remaining useful life.

“Previous analyses involved straight-line assumptions – comparing the pipe wall thickness at installation against what it is today. However this doesn’t give an accurate picture of how pipes degrade…by using statistical modeling we can develop a more predictable degradation rate based off of over 14,000 miles of inspection data Pure has collected over the past 30+ years.”

Jennifer Steffens, Market Sector Leader, Water and Wastewater, Pure Technologies

Desktop studies are not always reliable.

While often the first thought is to replace the aging wastewater assets based on factors such as age and failure history, this option makes neither logical nor financial sense. With so many miles of buried pipelines and such limited capital budgets, utilities don’t have hundreds of millions to spend on replacing pipelines which still have remaining useful life.

At Pure Technologies, we believe there is a better way. A more feasible approach to ensuring the safe operation of force mains is to undertake a risk-based approach to manage their operation. A risk-based approach will provide decision intelligence on which assets require rehabilitation or replacement to extend their useful life. Or which assets can be left alone.

Our approach is to help utilities evaluate the current state of their buried infrastructure and provide them with high confidence condition and operating data.   We then couple this with our years of extensive experience and project history (more than 12,000 kilometers of pressure pipe assessment) to provide utilities with actionable information, which allows them to make informed decisions as to the management of these critical assets.

The value of a risk-based approach to manage force mains.

Utilities that embrace a risk-based approach to manage their force main inventory have found that on average they can safely manage their force mains for roughly 5 to 15 percent of the replacement cost. This pragmatic approach focuses on providing real condition data through assessment, which can be used to selectively renew isolated areas of damaged pipe in lieu of capital replacement.

At Pure, we recommend a risk-based approach to manage wastewater force mains by focusing on four main areas:

  • Preliminary Risk Analysis
  • Internal Corrosion Potential Surveys using Inline Acoustics
  • Pipe Wall Assessment using Advanced Technologies
  • Condition Data Analysis and Advanced Risk Assessment

Some of the common reasons leading to failure on ferrous pipes.

Preliminary Risk Analysis

Preliminary analysis includes collecting the right data to develop a prioritized plan for assessment, including the selection of appropriate technologies. To help make preliminary decisions, Pure collects all available information to understand the history of the pipeline and the likely failure modes.

The data analysis will provide an understanding of the construction and context of the pipeline. Data of interest typically includes pipe characteristics, installation factors, environmental and performance-related data, operational data, and failure data.

Acoutic-based SmartBall® tool locates leaks and gas pockets

Acoustic-based SmartBall® tool locates leaks and gas pockets.

Sahara is an inline tethered tool used to locate leaks and gas pockets in pressurized lines.

Internal Corrosion Potential Survey.

An internal corrosion potential survey uses inline tools to locate gas pockets that can increase the potential for corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe wall. Pure Technologies typically deploys its acoustic-based SmartBall® leak and gas detection tool, as well as its tethered Sahara® leak and gas pocket detection platform to locate gas pockets in pressurized lines of all materials.

Pipe Wall Assessment.

While the presence of gas pockets may indicate areas of potential concern, it will not give a quantifiable answer as to the structural life of the pipe.

Pipe wall assessment is completed using a variety of technology solutions to identify defects and deterioration of the pipe wall in a variety of pipe materials. For pipe wall assessment of metallic force mains, common internal electromagnetic technologies include the PipeWalker® and PureRobotics® platforms, as well as the free-swimming 24-detector PipeDiver® assessment tool, developed to identify electromagnetic anomalies indicating pipe wall loss.

PipeDiver® assessment tool identifies electromagnetic anomalies indicating pipe wall loss.

Condition Assessment Analysis.

Condition data analysis and risk assessment evaluates how to safely renew or extend the life of force mains. The risk evaluation considers not only the probability of failure (condition) of the force main based on inspection data, but also the consequence of failure in order to make sound engineering decisions.

Understanding the risk of the pipeline is an important step in selecting and justifying the appropriate condition assessment methods. As the risk of the asset increases, the value of using high-resolution comprehensive assessment techniques increases. Higher resolution data results in more confident decision making, and would justify and prioritize the application of assessment techniques.

Diagnostic analytics helps utilities move risk assessment forward.

In the past, inspections were done, the data analysed, and the results passed on to the utility. Pure Technologies now offers a more holistic program of diagnostic analytics. This includes analysis of what caused the corrosion problem within the pipe wall, what the impact the corrosion has on the life of the pipeline, and a prescriptive analysis of how it needs to be repaired or rehabilitated.

The next step gathering momentum? Predictive analysis to elongate service life.

 

Tethered inline inspection tool helps European city determine condition of steel pipeline unused for more than 4 decades.

Bilbao is an industrial port city in northern Spain, surrounded by famous green mountains. The metropolis, where more than a million people live, is also famous for the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, the curvy, titanium-clad building that sparked a downtown revitalization when it opened in 1997.

Recently the city’s utility, Bilbao Bizkaia Water Consortium (BBWC), sparked interest in a possible revitalization program for a segment of its pipeline infrastructure that it had inherited. This involved the inspection of an older steel pipeline that had remained non-operational for more than 40 years.

In July 2017, Pipeline Infrastructure, consultant to Bilbao Bizkaia Water Consortium, decided to conduct a non-destructive evaluation of the utility’s Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri Pipeline that had been unused since the 1970s. The utility wanted to use Pure Technologies’ tethered Sahara® acoustic platform for a leak and air pocket inspection to determine the current condition of the pipe wall.

Although not planned initially, owing to the effortless inspection of the Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri Pipeline, the crews mobilized for an additional Sahara inspection at the Venta Alta Treatment plant, and the following day, a survey on 600 meters of a 500mm diameter reinforced concrete pipeline located in Portugalete. This pipeline traverses under the Bilbao River near the famous Vizcaya suspension bridge.

“We were pleased with the overall Sahara inspections, and all teams collaborated closely to inform us of the tool’s progress. Now that we know the current state of the pipelines, we can optimize our budgets to make better asset management decisions.”

Ángela Ríos Somavilla, Consorcio Aguas de Bilbao Bizkaia

Sahara inspection

Crews setting up to install the Sahara tool and then track its progress.

About the Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri pipeline.

Once a critical main within the city’s linear network, the Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri pipeline had been decommissioned for more than four decades. Constructed of steel, with an interior epoxy coating, the 1200mm diameter pipeline is more 3,000 meters in length.

The Bilbao Bizkaia Water Consortium sought assistance to assess the condition of the pipeline to determine the possibility of its operation again to deliver surplus water during the storm season for use in the generation of electric power at a nearby Hydro plant.

Due to the age of pipeline, and the fact that it was non-operational for over 40 years, BBWC was interested in locating any possible leaks in order to plan a defensible course of action.

Based on the inspection results, BBWC would then determine if it was necessary to design a new pipeline or opt for continuous rehabilitation. The other option, if feasible, would be to repair any defects in a timely manner to ensure the proper operation and safety of the pipeline, all the while making informed capital decisions.

A lot was at stake, which was why the inspection was so critical to BBWC.

Sahara is an inline tethered tool used to locate leaks and gas pockets without disruption to service.

Tethered Sahara technology accurately locates leaks with sub-meter accuracy.

To ascertain the condition of the line, BBWC selected the Sahara leak detection platform  for the inspection, conducted over three days with seven insertion points along the affected pipeline. Sahara is an inline tethered tool that can assess pipelines 152mm and larger, without any disruption to service.

Propelled by a small parachute inflated by the product flow, the tool requires a flow velocity as little as 0.3 m per second to progress through a water main. From a single insertion, the tool can travel more than one kilometer if flow, pressure and pipeline layout allow it.

Because the sensor tool is tethered, an operator can stop and reverse the tool to investigate acoustic events such as leaks, gas pockets and visual anomalies. At the same time, an above-ground operator locates the sensor above ground.

Much of the pipeline traverses an urban environment.

Pipeline commissioned exclusively for inspection.

The mothballed Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri pipeline was commissioned exclusively for the inspection, which took 3-4 hours to fill and bring up to pressurize again. BBWC initiated a flow rate of 650 l/s and 700 l/s in order to obtain a flow velocity of approximately 0.6 m/s. enough to propel the Sahara sensor. Pressure varied between 1.2 and 2 bars.

As mentioned, owing to the early completion of the Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri inspection, crews then mobilized to perform two additional surveys, one day at the Venta Alta treatment plant and the following day on the reinforced concrete pipeline than runs under the Bilbao River.

During the entire five-day survey, the Sahara mobilization crews kept in constant contact with BBWC, accurately communicating the inspection time, depending on the length of each of the pipe sections, number of fittings, access difficulty, etc. in order to the limit the supply and avoid the unnecessary waste of water.

While the crews faced some challenges, overall all three inspections were successful, and went off without a major hitch.

Inspection results prove that for most pipelines, age does not matter.

Analysis of the acoustic data identified no new leaks along the 2800 meters of inspected Venta-Alta-Ollargan-Etxebarri pipeline. For a pipeline decommissioned for over 40 years, the line is in surprisingly remarkable condition.

Three leaks were identified on the reinforced concrete pipeline, all located under the river. Knowing the current state of the pipelines, Bilbao Bizkaia Water Consortium can now make informed capital decisions on whether to repair or rehabilitate the lines. Knowledge is power.

 

Case Study

Intermunicipal Service Oeiras and Amadora is a water management company responsible for the distribution of drinking water for the municipalities of Amadora and Oeiras in the Lisbon region of Portugal. SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora distributes water to more than 350,000 customers who have come to rely on the public company for their water services.

Project Details

Services
SmartBall leak detection inspection
Pipe Material
Ductile iron
Inspection Length
2781 meters (2.6 miles)
Diameter
600mm (24-inch)
Transmission Type
Water

Project Highlights

Total of 1.7 miles (2.78kms) of 5-year-old pipeline inspected

Inspection located one (1) leak 863 meters from insertion

Leak repaired and allowed SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora to recover costs associated with the loss of non-revenue water

Challenge

The F. Passarinhos-Atalaia duct is a pressurized pipeline that supplies water to one of eight reservoirs operated by SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora in the municipality of Amadora. Installed in 2007, the large 600 mm (24-inch) transmission main, made from ductile iron material, delivers drinking water to approximately 31 percent of Amadora’s residents, making it a critical part of the municipality’s buried infrastructure.

In 2012, SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora detected a noticeable pressure drop in the system, indicating the possibility of a critical leak, the predecessor of a potential rupture that could negatively impact the environment and significantly disrupt day-to-day life in the community.

In addition to physical losses of water caused by a small leaks, the escaping non-revenue water can eventually erode the surrounding soil making the area more prone to washouts or sinkholes, a major headache especially in densely populated areas. Unplanned excavations to repair unforeseen leaks can also erode consumer confidence in a public utility.

Solution

When traditional leak detection methods—geophones and acoustic correlators­ were unable to detect the location and size of the leak, SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora called on its contractor to perform a leak detection survey using the innovative SmartBall tool from Pure Technologies (Pure).  Because of the criticality of the line, the survey was conducted while the pipeline remained in operation.

Pure’s patented SmartBall tool is an aluminum-core, foam-shell ball packed with several different sensors that can be launched into a water main without any disruption to client service.

Unlike traditional external listening tools that have limited success on large diameter pipes, SmartBall is the industry’s only free-flowing multi-sensor technology that provides the highest degree of accuracy, since as the ball rolls, it can inspect every inch of a water main to detect potential problems such as leaks and gas pockets. Its highly sensitive acoustic sensors can locate ‘pinhole’ leaks and gas pockets within a location accuracy of 1.8 meters.

Results

The SmartBall was inserted into the pipeline through a 6” gate valve and the journey took two hours and 49 minutes. One small leak was detected, 863 meters from the insertion site. This leak was repaired and allowed SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora to recover costs associated the loss of non-revenue water, had it remained undetected.

Although the SmartBall tool detected just one leak, the inspection gave SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora the capacity to assess assets from inside the pipe rather than drawing conclusions from indirect, external clues. If leaks are discovered early, operators can take necessary action to makes repairs before they become a major problem.

This process allows progressive operators like SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora to develop a sustainable long-term strategy for managing their critical buried assets.

Case Study

In March 2014, Pure Technologies completed a successful leak detection survey on behalf of Mancomunidad Comarca de Pamplona (MCP). The inspected pipeline is part of the MCP’s water supply network, was constructed 20 years ago, and traverses from Olaz – El Cano Pump Station to the Gorraiz Reservoir for 2.4 kilometers.

The main’s purpose is to keep water supply to the town of Egües, which features a hotel and golf course. The pipeline has an operating pressure of 12 bar and is pump operated with 50 litres per second during winter months and 100 litres per second during summer season because of increased demand. The inspection was performed in two runs to proactively address water loss on the transmission main.

Project Details

Services
SmartBall® Leak and Gas Pocket Detection
Timing
March 2014
Pipe Material
Ductile Iron
Inspection Length
2.4 km (1.5 miles)
Diameter
400mm (16-inch)
Transmission Type
Water

Project Highlights

SmartBall® leak detection located 4 leaks in 1.49 miles (2.4 kms) of inspection

3 of 4 leaks have been verified and repaired by MCP

Leaks as small as 1 litre per minute identified by SmartBall technology

Challenge
MCP is very dedicated to controlling water loss and completing regular leak detection; they have a permanent internal group with the unique mandate of finding leaks. Typically, they use an advanced SCADA system to identify an area with a leak and then experienced technicians use geophones to establish the exact location of the leak. Using this procedure, MCP has reached a Non-Revenue Water (NRW) level of roughly 10 percent of in their entire network. However, the Impulsión de Gorraiz had a known leak that could not be pinpointed precisely. MCP knew its elevation coordinates but couldn’t identify its exact location using traditional methods.

Solution
With a philosophy of continuous improvement, MCP used Pure’s services to perform a leak detection survey with SmartBall. To supplement its internal leak detection team and SCADA system, MCP wanted to test the validity of an inline leak detection tool and locate the known leak on this pipeline. MCP places equal importance on identifying large leaks and small leaks.

While large leaks leak at a much higher rate, identifying them only eliminates a leak at the tail end of its life. In terms of reducing NRW, locating small leaks may actually represent the best opportunity for long-term water loss reduction. Catching a leak while it is very small prevents the decades of sustained water loss that would occur as it grows into a large leak. While large leaks are important to locate, using technology that can find small leaks on large-diameter pipelines can prevent the development of large leaks and play a vital role in the safe management of a pipeline network.

MCP used SmartBall® leak detection for the inspections. The tool is a free-swimming leak detection platform that operates while the pipeline remains in service. It is capable of completing long inspections in a single deployment and is equipped with an acoustic sensor that identifies acoustic anomalies associated with leaks; the acoustic signature is then analyzed to determine if it is a leak, air pocket, or an external noise.

To track the tool as it traverses the pipeline, SmartBall receivers (SBR) are placed strategically throughout the planned inspection route. As the tool traverses, it makes a sound that is recorded by the receivers to determine its position on the pipeline; this system allows leak locations to be estimated typically within 1.5- meters (6-feet) of the actual leak location.

Due to a 12 bar pressure at the pump station, a new high pressure insertion cap was designed and fabricated to assist with insertion procedure together with a pulley system that allowed the SmartBall insertion claw to be pushed into the pipeline. In order to ensure the highest level of accuracy, additional SBR points were mounted to track the tool closely and a mobile SBR unit was also used. At the reservoir, a small-diameter net was used to retrieve the tool after the inspection was completed.

Results
Upon completion of the inspection, data analysis revealed four acoustic anomalies resembling leaks despite MCP expecting only one leak along the main. Using updated client estimates and the SmartBall tool’s joint detection feature, Pure identified the exact location of three of the four leaks with an accuracy of less than 0.5 meters, including the known leak. The fourth leak verification has been deferred by MCP until a later date. The close location accuracy was confirmed after MCP excavated the leak locations for repair. In addition to the accuracy, the inspection was also successful in identifying small leaks. The leaks confirmed through excavation were as small as ~0.1 liters per minute.

Based on the inspection, MCP was very satisfied with the technology and information that will be used for future management of their network.

Case Study

Highways England (formerly the Highways Agency) is a government-owned company with the responsibility of managing the core road network in England. It operates information services, liaises with other government agencies and provides staff to deal with incidents on the roads it manages. The company managed The Mossband Viaduct, which carried traffic over a roadway and railway until its demolition in 2008.

Project Details

Services
SoundPrint® Acoustic Monitoring – Bridges

Monitoring system commissioned in 2001

Operated continuously until bridge demolition in 2008

Bridge Type
Post-tensioned concrete
Monitored Length
836 ft (255 m)
Number of Spans
8
Number of Sensors
210

Project Highlights

System has performed in excess of 99% of efficiency over its life

SoundPrint identified and located 6 specific wire break events

Structure life extended over 7 years via structural health monitoring

Client estimated economic benefits $30 to $40 million

Challenge

The viaduct was comprised of twin decks – one deck was constructed of concrete girders butted up against each other, with a top cantilevered slab, while the second deck was a voided box-girder. Half of the spans were post-tensioned cast in-situ concrete table spans and four were suspended spans supported by the table spans on half-joints.

Conventional visual investigations were performed in 1990, 1995, and 1999.

The first investigation discovered water ingress at all the deck joints and next to the drainage pipes. This was believed to have been occurring over many years. General corrosion of the surface reinforcement in these areas resulted in surface spalling.

The second inspection revealed the presence of several corroded and broken tendons in the in-situ table spans. The damaged tendons were located in the deck over the pier supports, where the cable profiles approached the top surface of the deck. A deck construction joint within a meter of the pier support provided a direct water path to the tendon ducts. The cable profiles descended from this location into the mid-span of the table span and to the half-joint anchorage area.

As is often the case with selective visual investigations, one location often showed severe corrosion while an adjacent location appeared undamaged. In this case, the third inspection showed that some of the longitudinal tendons had all the strands completely corroded whereas only two meters away, they appeared in good condition. Clearly, the tendons at the half-joint locations were at risk at all 14 locations, but the extent of deterioration at every location was unknown.

Solution

The Highways agency implemented a comprehensive bridge management plan starting in 1999 to assess the rate of deterioration of the post-tensioning, and if necessary, to intervene and strengthen the structure. ­The plan consisted of:

  • Monthly visual inspections of critical sections
  • Installation of vibrating wire stain gauges to monitor cracks on the sides of the sections and soffit of construction joints
  • Load testing to compare stain changes
  • Installation of a SoundPrint acoustic monitoring system to monitor the rate of deterioration of the post-tensioning system

In late 2000, 210 acoustic sensors were installed along the 836 foot (255 m) length of the viaduct in three rows to fully monitor all post-tensioning tendons. ­The sensors were multiplexed at local junction boxes to minimize cabling and data acquisition requirements. Data was acquired via a single acquisition unit calibrated to reject the majority of non-wire events, with events of interest transferred to servers in Calgary, AB for analysis.

Results

The wire break rate found was lower than expected. Six wire breaks were detected during the extended life of the structure, giving engineers/owners confidence that the bridge management program was effective. Further, strain readings during the AIL annual load tests showed that the structure was not experiencing severe changes in deflections, and that the serviceability requirements were being met. ­ The crack growth was also monitored, and thought to be consistent with the rate of deterioration observed with the acoustic system.

 

In this case, the acoustic monitoring system was used to extend the life of the structure by seven years and 10 months, until a new bridge could be built as part of the A74 Cumberland Gap. Approximately $1.4 million was spent on the two monitoring systems and the load tests over 8 years, including the system-related inspection and reporting functions by engineers.

 

Client estimated that the economic benefit in delaying the permanent bridge replacement and not fast tracking a temporary structure was between $30-$40 million dollars.

In North America, the material and size of pipes that make up water and sewer networks range widely. Because these pipeline systems are so complex, it requires a strategic approach based on risk and real data for effective long-term management.

Worker inspecting pipe

Historically, however, it has been challenging to gather real data that can shape defensive capital decisions for an entire system. The assessment of metallic pipelines — which make up most water and pressurized sewer networks — differs from prestressed concrete cylinder pipes (PCCP), both in terms of failure modes and in the fact that metallic pipe materials are featured in both transmission and distribution networks.

While PCCP assessment and management have been successfully used by utilities for years, effective assessment solutions for ferrous pipe have only recently been commercialized.

In 2011, Pure Technologies began an initiative to help close the gap in metallic pipe assessment technologies, and focus attention on gathering honest feedback from proactive utilities on what solutions are needed to effectively manage metallic pipe.

Seven years later, Pure Technologies reports that notable progress has been made with the development and advancement of assessment technologies for metallic pipeline networks.

Team of workers with a metallic pipe

Many proactive utilities involved in guiding Pure’s research efforts

Proactive utilities have been involved in the metallic pipe initiative, and instrumental in the development of new inspection tools for metallic pipe, both by providing feedback that helps guide research and development, and by providing opportunities that allow solution testing in live operating conditions. As a result of these efforts, there has been significant improvements to the technologies available to utilities for assessing the condition of metallic pipelines in both transmission and distribution networks.

For large-diameter transmission mains, there is a well-developed business case for assessing these mains as they approach the end of their useful life. These pipelines typically carry a high replacement cost and are higher risk — due primarily to their size and criticality — making it important for utilities to fully understand the condition of the asset.

Armed with real condition data, utilities can make a defensible renewal or replacement decision about the pipeline. Based on well over 14,000 miles of data, Pure Technologies has found that only a small percentage of pipes are in need of immediate renewal.

Small diameter metallic pipe leak

Case for using inline tools for small diameter pipelines

In distribution networks, however, the case for condition assessment is more challenging as smaller pipelines can sometimes be replaced cost-effectively. Despite this, the process for making a replacement decision should be based, whenever possible, on risk and real data.

With the EPA suggesting that between 70 and 90 percent of pipes being replaced have remaining useful life, the case is even stronger for collecting condition data to drive the decision making to help utilities spend their replacement dollars more efficiently and avoid replacing pipe with remaining useful life.

In some instances with smaller diameter pipes, it is often cost-efficient to use inline tools to gather detailed screening data on a pipe-by-pipe basis to determine if replacement is necessary.

A new approach to metallic pipeline management

While there is no silver bullet technology for assessing metallic pipelines, Pure has developed a flexible, risk-based approach to help utilities better understand their infrastructure, gather actionable data and prioritize both short and long-term management efforts.

Over the past few years, Pure has worked along proactive utilities to develop its data-driven Assess and Address® approach, which focuses on four main areas:

  • Understand
  • Assess
  • Address
  • Manage

Through the implementation of programs across North America, Pure has found that the majority of pipelines 16 inches and above can be cost-effectively managed for between 5 and 15 percent of the replacement cost.

Starting an effective pipeline management program

The first step of any pipeline management program is understanding the system-wide risk along with the benefits and limitations of assessment solutions. This allows for the development of a defensible management strategy that can be implemented to maintain and extend the life of the assets.

Many technologies now exist to provide a snapshot of a pipeline condition at various levels of confidence. It is therefore prudent for utilities to approach technology selection and subsequent analysis based on the risk of each pipeline.

A more thorough risk assessment involves estimating the Consequence of Failure (CoF) and the Likelihood of Failure (Lof) of each pipeline based on internal knowledge, operational history and pipeline characteristics. This initial risk assessment determines which areas of the system require further assessment to acquire real condition data and provides the utility with the necessary information to make an informed technology selection.

By using risk to guide management strategies, owners can ensure they are implementing the right approach, at the right time, with the lowest financial impact. The goal of a management program should always be o focus resources on managing the asset while safely getting the most service life out of the pipeline.

Sinkhole in a street

Reducing the Consequence of Failure

Reducing CoF comes down to improving emergency events through field operations efficiency. Studies have shown that the time to shut down a pipeline had more impact on the consequence of failure than the diameter of the pipeline.

Utilities can reduce CoF — and in turn risk — by gaining a better control on their system, which can be achieved two ways:

  • 1. Adding valves and redundancy in the system
  • 2. Knowing the location, condition and operability of control points

For example, if a pipe fails and utility operations staff are unable to locate valves — or the valves are inoperable when they are located — it will take longer to isolate a pipe failure. This will result in greater damage, more water loss and longer outages and repair times as a result of the failure. Implementing a proactive program for control assets that focus on providing better data for field staff reduces CoF by decreasing emergency response time.

Reducing the Likelihood of Failure through condition assessment

Many factors influence the likelihood that a pipeline will fail. Metallic pipelines, specifically, have a variety of failure modes and require a wide array of technologies to accurately assess their condition. Until recently, technologies for metallic pipe assessment have been unavailable or limited in their viability.

As a result, lower risk metallic mains have historically been prioritized for replacement using age, material and break history, while higher risk mains have sometimes been assessed with test pits along the length of the pipeline. After test pitting, statistical methods are used to extrapolate the condition of the test pit locations along the entire pipe length.

Through the development of metallic assessment solutions, condition data shows that pipe distress is often random and localized, meaning that an area of distress identified during the test pit method may inaccurately identify the entire pipeline as distressed, conversely, identify the entire length of pipeline as in good condition.

The development of reliable inline condition assessment tools provides owners with pipe-by-pipe data that gives a more complete picture of the actual condition of the pipeline. This allows for a more targeted management of small sections of pipe instead of generalizing the condition of an entire pipe length. It also allows for the collection of real data to drive pipeline renewal, which allows for more defensible capital decision making.

Case Study

The Netherlands faces unique challenges with their underground pipe networks due to their proximity to numerous dykes that regulate water levels.

Because pipe failures can lead to drastic consequences for Dutch infrastructure, Waternet undertook a leak detection program for three major pipelines that pass various critical infrastructure including dykes, motorways and airport runways.

Extensive testing was done by officials and Pure Technologies prior to the inspection to ensure the technology could offer a comprehensive leak assessment of the pipeline’s condition.

Project Details

Services
SmartBall® leak and gas pocket inspection
Timing
2013-2014
Pipe Material
PCCP
Inspection Length
195 km (121 miles)
Diameter
1200mm-1500mm (48-60 inch)
Transmission Type
Water

Project Highlights

195kms

of pipelines inspected

3

leaks located

3

leaks verified

Risk mitigated on critical pipeline
Challenge
Most of the Netherlands is situated under sea level, and a large system of dykes protects the land from rising water, while also connecting villages and cities. Water pipelines are often laid in close proximity to the dykes, meaning burst pipes would have devastating e­ffects on the road infrastructure and the surrounding communities.

Today, the aging dyke system is eroding the pipelines foundation causing stress and increasing the likelihood of failures. As a result of several incidents with failing or leaking pipelines in the vicinity of dykes, their owners issued a decree that required water utilities to prove the integrity of its buried assets. Waternet, the regional public water authority for Amsterdam, identified several pipelines of particular concern where a small leak from a pipeline could impact dyke integrity and a risk analysis discovered areas of pipe weakness. Based on these results, authorities determined that further testing in the form of inline leak detection should be performed.

Before embarking on inline leak detection, local officials required several rounds of extensive testing of the proposed technology to demonstrate e­ffectiveness in detecting and locating small leaks in the pipeline. In addition, since the scope of inspection included approximately 180 km of concrete pipelines, the leak detection technology had to demonstrate the ability to inspect long sections of pipe for the project to be most e­ffective.

Solution
Waternet partnered with Pure Technologies to perform inline inspections on three separate pipelines.

The SmartBall® leak detection tool was chosen to assess the integrity of the pipelines and to find leaks along the length of the pipe. The SmartBall tool is a free-flowing leak detection platform that operates while the pipeline remains in service. It is capable of completing long inspections in a single deployment and is equipped with an acoustic sensor that identifies acoustic anomalies associated with leaks and air pockets.

Typically inserted through an existing valve, it travels with the water flow recording the acoustic environment within the line. The SmartBall tool is then removed by either deploying a net at a predetermined extraction point or at another discharge point of the pipeline. The data is stored on the device and analyzed upon completion of the inspection. It is able to travel through long sections of pipe gathering approximately 18 hours of data, making it the ideal solution for the long pipelines of the Waternet leak detection program.

Calibration tests were done to conform to the strict requirements implemented by the dyke owners who wanted clear indications on the lower leak detection limit specific to the composition of the pipe. A calibration stack was developed and extensive tests were performed, simulating leaks to create a calibration curve for various leak sizes. The tests proved SmartBall could detect the leaks smaller than the threshold set by the dyke owners.

Results
Pure Technologies performed SmartBall inspections for Waternet along the WRK pipelines. These pipelines run mainly through rural farmland but also cross through critical dyke systems.

The first portion of the inspection began in 2013 when 146 kilometres of pipeline was broken into eight lengthy inspections. In 2014 the remaining 49 kilometres were inspected. Three leaks were found and verified during the inspection of the entire 195 kilometres of pipeline.

Pure Technologies worked closely with Waternet to fulfill the comprehensive requirements of the leak detection program required by the utility. The importance the dyke system to the protection of the country’s infrastructure and communities mean the integrity of the pipelines must be maintained. The inline leak detection program gave Waternet the necessary information to fulfill their commitment to the dyke owners, and help extend the life of these critical pipelines.

The first time new parties come together to work on a pipeline inspection project, they face a lot of pressure to perform.

The team must instill trust and understand each other to ensure the project goes off without a hitch. In this instance, that’s what happened when Pure Technologies (Pure) and its long-time partner WRc came together with;Irish Water, Cork County Council (CCC) to assess and address the condition of a critical water main in the City of Cork, Ireland.

As this was the first collaborative project among the four groups, it was also a test of the planning expertise, engineering skills and technology advances for Pure Technologies and WRc to impress upon Irish Water and Cork County Council. In the end, the inspection was successful, lessons were learned, and a positive new relationship was forged.

Aerial view of the City of Cork

Project Begins With Six Months of Planning

After six months of planning, in March 2017, Irish Water and its consultant WRc engaged Pure Technologies to conduct a non-destructive evaluation of approximately six (6) kms (3.7 miles) of 1500mm (60-inch) and 1200mm (48-inch) prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) sections in the water main between Chetwynd reservoir and Carrs Hill, using the SmartBall® pipeline inspection platform.

 

 

SmartBall tool provides acoustic signature related to leaks and gas pockets

For the Inniscarra Water Main inspection, Pure Technologies deployed its proprietary SmartBall technology, a multi-sensor tool used to detect and locate the acoustic signature related to leaks and gas pockets in pressurized pipelines. The tool has the ability to inspect long distances in a single run, and while the SmartBall is deployed, the pipeline remains in service, limiting disruption to customers.

Unlike traditional listening tools like correlators, which have limited success on large diameter pipes, the free-flowing SmartBall technology provides a high degree of accuracy, because as the device travels along the pipeline, it continuously records the acoustic environment within the line. All data is stored onboard the device and later evaluated to determine the presence and location of any leaks or pockets of trapped gas.

Tool tracked at known points along the pipeline alignment

 

During inspection, the SmartBall tool’s location is tracked at known points along the alignment to correlate the inspection data with specific locations. As the SmartBall tool approaches a leak, the acoustic signal will increase and crescendo at the point when the tool passes the leak.

From insertion to extraction, the SmartBall inspection took a little over six hours, with no unexpected events that were not anticipated during the planning stage.

As the SmartBall was extracted, it was met with a round of roaring applause from assembled team members.

Results lead to effective management of finances and risk

Based on the inspection data, our analysts reported three (3) anomalies characteristic of leaks, and zero (0) acoustic anomalies characteristic of pockets of trapped gas.

Overall, both Irish Water and Cork County Council were pleased with the project results, as they were able to understand the overall condition of the pipeline and make an informed decision for capital improvements of the Inniscarra Water Main. The project demonstrates how Irish Water and CCC can use actionable data to effectively manage their finances and risk, while continuing to provide the community with a safe and reliable delivery of drinking water.

 

It’s a major event when you’ve been asked to perform a first in terms of a pipeline inspection.

For starters, you must feel confident in the inspection technology you recommend. Second, you hope that all your planning for deployment and unexpected contingencies has been anticipated. And finally, with so many eyes focused on the outcome, you hope the first inspection of its kind goes off without a hitch.

That was the case in May 2017, when the Dutch utility Brabantse Delta retained Pure Technologies (Pure) to perform a SmartBall® inspection on a critical untreated wastewater pipeline near the city of Zevenbergen, located in the North Brabant province.

For Pure Technologies, this project marked the first SmartBall acoustic inspection of a rising [force] main in the Netherlands.

Brabantse Delta operates AWP-1, a pre-stressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) pipeline that transfers industrial wastewater from the Moerdiijk pump station to the Hoven pump station. The 800mm (32-inch) pipeline traverses a lot of farmland near the city, which made accessing buried manholes somewhat of a challenge, as many of these were located on private land, making excavation difficult.

Gas pockets are of concern on wastewater lines

The pipeline has not experienced regular failures, but Brabantse Delta was looking for solutions to establish a baseline condition and manage the risk of this critical asset. The primary purpose of the SmartBall inspection was to identify and locate leaks and pockets of trapped gas along the approximately 8.3 km (5.1 mile) pipeline.

We were pleased the overall execution and excited that the SmartBall tool was able to collect inspection data while the force main remained in operation.” Ing. R van Wanrooij, Adviser Civil Engineering, Brabantse Delta

Gas pockets are of significant concern in force mains, as concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas within wastewater may be subsequently converted to sulfuric acid by bacteria in the slime layer on the pipe wall.  This may cause corrosion and eventual breakdown of the pipe’s exposed surface.

The SmartBall tool was chosen as an inspection platform for its sensitivity to small leaks and gas pockets and for its ability to inspect long distances in a single deployment. Minimal pipeline modifications are required for insertion and extraction.

SmartBall tool tracked at known points along the pipeline alignment

The free-swimming, acoustic-based SmartBall® tool is inserted into the pipeline flow, and after traversing the inspection length, the tool is captured and extracted at a point downstream.

During inspection, the SmartBall tool’s location is tracked at known points along the length of the pipeline to correlate the inspection data with specific locations. As the SmartBall tool approaches a leak, the acoustic signal will increase and crescendo at the point when the tool passes the leak.

Unlike traditional listening tools like correlators, which have limited success on large diameter pipes, the free-flowing SmartBall technology provides a high degree of accuracy, since as the ball rolls inside the pipe, it can inspect every inch of the main to detect leaks and gas pockets.

Prior to the execution of the project, Pure Technologies reviewed the site and all pipeline drawings. The only real inspection challenge was taking into account the limited number of SmartBall receiver tracking units, as some of the buried manholes were located on private farms.

Inspection results

The inspection went smoothly, and all data successfully collected. From insertion to extraction, the SmartBall inspection took under 5 hours, with no unexpected events thanks to cooperative planning and full support of the Brabantse Delta team.

Preliminary data indicated no leaks and zero (0) acoustic events associated with pockets of trapped gas. Entrained air was present throughout the pipeline, but no events of significance were detected. Entrained air is a migratory event, meaning its location is dynamic and changes over time with the operational flow. These events are expected to move throughout the pipeline, and locations are specific to the time of the inspection.

Overall, Brabantse Delta was pleased with the execution, and excited to know there was an inspection tool that gave them a better understanding on the overall condition of the AWP-1 pipeline. The project demonstrates how Brabantse Delta uses actionable data to effectively manage risk, while continuing to provide the community with a safe and reliable delivery of untreated wastewater.

Case Study

Evides Watercompany was open to exploring new ways to reduce risks and extend the service life of their buried infrastructure. In particular, Evides wanted to assess the condition of its TL2.60 pipeline, a cement-lined 800mm (31.5 inch) steel pipe, with 2.8 kilometers (1.7 miles) of the inspected pipeline running along an important highway connecting Rotterdam to The Hague.

To assist in the condition assessment, Evides elected to deploy the 24-sensor PipeDiver®, an innovative tool from Pure Technologies designed to assess and address large-diameter metallic pipelines.

Project Details

Services
SmartBall® leak detection

PipeDiver® condition assessment

Timing
2016
Pipe Material
Steel
Inspection Length
2.84 km (1.7 miles)
Diameter
800mm (31.5-inch)
Transmission Type
Water

Project Highlights

 

Four (4)
pipes identified with anomalies

60% wall loss
on one pipe section identified by EM data

Zero (0)
leaks detected

 

HD-CTTV identified
estimated savings due to inspection: 1.1M Euros

 

Challenge
Prior to inspection, Evides created a series of predetermined defects made on a specific pipe segment in a research environment. The objective was to validate the tool against a range of known defects in a pipe with the same characteristics as the pipe inspected. During this process, all defects within the stated sensitivity were detected by the 24D PipeDiver tool at the precise location, providing confidence for the upcoming live inspection.

PipeDiver is a flexible, free-swimming condition assessment tool for pressurized water and wastewater pipelines. The video-equipped tool is ideal for critical pipelines that cannot be removed from service due to a lack of redundancy or operational constraints.

Solution
While PipeDiver has traditionally been deployed on prestressed concrete pipe to identify and locate broken prestressing wire wraps, the 24-detector PipeDiver has been specifically developed for metallic pipelines. For the Evides inspection, the PipeDiver tool with 24 electromagnetic sensors was used to locate and identify steel pipes with anomalies associated with corrosion or reduced wall thickness.

This Evides inspection marked the first condition assessment of metallic pipe using the 24D PipeDiver in Europe, an exercise that confirmed the validity of the tool’s sensor technology and validate once more the effectiveness of the platform to inspect pipelines.

The insertions went off without a hitch, and the PipeDiver sailed through the pipeline obstacle course with ease, gathering EM data along the route.

Results
Of the approximately 237 pipe sections inspected during the real inspection, four pipes were identified with anomalies indicative of cylinder wall loss, ranging between 30 percent and 60 percent. The wall loss defects ranged from 10.8 to 37.7 cubic centimeters (0.64 to 2.30 cubic inches).

After the inspection, three out of the four locations were dug-up to verify the reported defects, using non-destructive ultrasonic techniques. On each of the locations, the defects were found, and the actual material loss was in the range of the reported material loss.

Overall, the results proved the worth of PipeDiver as an advanced condition assessment tool able to deliver precise, actionable data on metallic pipes. The exercise showed the PipeDiver tool as a cost-effective solution versus methods that have operational constraints or require a shutdown or dewatering, or in this case, taken out of service. Evides estimated capital savings of 1.1M Euros as a result of the inspection and repairs.

Quote

“PipeDiver proved to be a suitable tool for one of our most important inspection needs: Corrosion of cement-lined steel pipes. We are especially glad the tool was able to pass a butterfly valve, and to be inserted and extracted through 600mm manholes, as this greatly improves operability and cost effectiveness.”

–Bart Bergmans, Project Manager, Infrastructure Asset Management, Evides Watercompany

Case Study

Metropolitana Milanese (MM) manages the integrated water services for the City of Milan, which has more than 2,295 kilometers (1,430 miles) of pipeline in their network.  MM identified a critical transmission main as a priority for inspection, and proactively assessed a nine kilometer section using the SmartBall inline leak detection tool.  The Assiana Linate Transmission Main was selected as a high value main due to its location in the heart of Milan. A rupture would prove to be costly and disruptive to the city, and Metropolitana Milanese had no prior condition information on the main’s integrity.

Project Details

Services
SmartBall® Inline Leak Detection
Timing
2015
Pipe Material
Steel
Inspection Length
9 kilometers (5.5 miles)
Diameter
1200mm (48-inch)
Transmission Type
Water

Project Highlights

23
leaks in 9km identified by SmartBall® inspection

Inspection identified high concentration of leaks in specific zones

Program costs expected to be repaid in 3 years from water savings

Challenge

Assessing the condition of buried infrastructure can be challenging and difficult to predict. Traditional belief dictates the condition of the pipe is directly associated with its age, however extensive field work shows this is not always the case. One-hundred year old pipes can be dug up in like-new condition, and newer pipes can show extensive damage due to operational, environmental, and installation factors. While the Assiano Linate Transmission main, a 1200mm steel transmission main situated in the heart of Milan, was installed in 1982 and therefore is not particularly old, its important nature to the network made it a priority for assessment. Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a major concern for municipalities and a proactive approach to pipeline inspection is critical to managing investments.

Solution

Metropolitana Milanese proactively assessed a nine kilometer section of the Assiano Linate Transmission main using the SmartBall leak detection tool. This technology was chosen to allow the transmission main to remain in operation during the inspection, a critical requirement due to the networks served by the main.

The tool is a free-flowing leak detection platform that operates while the pipeline remains in service. It is capable of completing long inspections in a single deployment and is equipped with an acoustic sensor that identifies acoustic anomalies associated with leaks and air pockets. The acoustic signature is then analyzed to determine if it is a leak, air pocket, or an external noise.

Identifying leaks small or large contributes to maintaining the condition of a transmission main. In metallic pipe materials, a catastrophic failure is often preceded by a period of leakage, so identifying and repairing leaks can help to reduce water main failures, as well as reduce Non-Revenue Water loss not detected in water balances.

Results

The SmartBall inspection identified 23 large leaks within 9 kilometers of pipeline inspected. One area of high leak concentration detected 8 leaks in a short 240 meter section. Although Metropolitana Milanese chose a low resolution tool for their assessment program, the concentrated location of the leaks resulted in an accurate condition assessment by finding the weak link in the transmission main.

While many leaks were detected during the inspection, because the overall flow of the main is high, the leakage was undetectable with traditional metering equipment. However, the potential savings from the leak detection program are significant enough to have a positive impact on the city’s Non-Revenue Water Program, and its finances.  Although the production cost of water is relatively low, the expected savings in water loss from repairing the leaks will pay back the costs of the project in approximately three years, including the cost of repair to the damaged section.

Furthermore, the results indicated that limited portions of the main have damage while most of the pipeline appears to be in relatively good condition. This gives a targeted area for repairs without the need to dig up large sections of the pipeline – a costly and time-consuming process.

By determining the specific locations of leaks on the Assiano Linate Transmission Main, Metropolitana Milanese will be able to reduce its NRW and has gained a better understanding of the overall condition of the pipeline. This will aid in future capital planning and will also provide a valuable study into determining the external factors that might be causing the leakage.

Focused repair works for the leaks will allow the utility to extend the life of the pipeline and reduce water loss, thus improving the overall service to its customers. The final data from the inspection will be presented in an innovative asset management overview to Metropolitana Milanese.

Quote

“SmartBall has been a cost-effective solution to assess the condition of a very critical pipe in our network without causing any negative impact in our daily operations.”

–Metropolitana Milanese

Since 2007, utilities all over the world have been using the SmartBall® pipeline inspection platform to save millions of dollars in water loss and to fix leaks before they turn into larger problems.


Developed by Pure Technologies (Pure), the tool is trusted by utilities for two main reasons. One is for condition assessment purposes, and the other is for reducing non-revenue water. From a condition assessment perspective, SmartBall® is a proactive tool that can be used as part of a larger holistic approach to help identify problem areas that require repairs before they turn into bigger issues, and also to help utilities prioritize capital spending.

SmartBall inside a pipe.

Detect and locate acoustic sounds related to leaks and gas pockets

The primary purpose of the SmartBall tool is to detect and locate the acoustic sounds related to leaks and gas pockets.

“Unlike traditional correlators, the SmartBall sensors travel inline along the pipe, inspecting every inch of the water main to detect potential problems such as leaks and gas pockets. Based on thousands of miles of experience, the SmartBall tool has found three to four times more leaks than trunk main correlators, which are traditionally used in smaller diameter pipes, and are less effective for transmission mains and larger diameter pipes.”

Cam White

Business Line Manager, SmartBall

Deployed for long runs in one inspection for water and wastewater pipelines

What makes the SmartBall tool so remarkable is its ability to get into and out of pipelines very easily, and to be deployed for long runs in one inspection for both water and wastewater pipelines. The tool requires only two access points – one for insertion and one for extraction.

For insertion, the foam-shelled SmartBall tool is placed into a claw, compressed, and then lowered into the line through a 4-inch (100mm) or larger tap, all while the line is pressurized. Throughout the survey, Pure’s inspection team constantly monitors the SmartBall’s position as it traverses the pipeline collecting data.

  • An acoustic sensor listens for leaks and gas pockets.
  • An accelerometer and gyroscope measure the SmartBall’s movement, which can later be used for pipeline mapping.
  • A magnetometer measures the magnetic field coming off the pipe wall, data that can be used to find joints and other pipeline features.
SmartBall extraction process

Multiple insertion and extraction options available

There are many alternative options available to get the SmartBall in and out of a pipeline. Having multiple options reduces the money and effort required by utilities to support the inspection.

Once the inspection is complete, the data is extracted from the ball and sent to Pure’s data analysts where they will identify leaks and gas pockets.

As utility owners know, it can be expensive to excavate, and what SmartBall tool does is provide information that’s accurate, so clients can dig up the pipeline and find the leak the first time.

Rideau Canal, Ottawa

For the City of Ottawa, the SmartBall tool is used to locate “leak-where-predicted”

The “leak-where-predicted” scenario recently happened with the City of Ottawa when Pure deployed its SmartBall inspection platform to locate leaks and pockets of trapped gas along a critical transmission main, as part of a long-term condition assessment program for the municipality.

The Baseline Road Water Transmission Main is a high priority 1220mm (48-inch) diameter pipeline comprised of lined cylinder pipe (LCP).

For the City of Ottawa project, five (5) surface-mounted acoustic sensors were placed along the pipeline to track the SmartBall tool during the inspection. The SmartBall device was inserted into the pipeline through a 100mm drain near a hospital. Acoustic and sensor data was collected and recorded as the SmartBall tool traversed the pipeline for more than three kilometers.

From the survey results, Pure detected one (1) acoustic anomaly characteristic of a leak and zero (0) anomalies consistent with pockets of trapped gas.

The “leak-where-predicted” scenario recently happened with the City of Ottawa when Pure deployed its SmartBall inspection platform to locate leaks and pockets of trapped gas along a critical transmission main, as part of a long-term condition assessment program for the municipality.

The Baseline Road Water Transmission Main is a high priority 1220mm (48-inch) diameter pipeline comprised of lined cylinder pipe (LCP).

For the City of Ottawa project, five (5) surface-mounted acoustic sensors were placed along the pipeline to track the SmartBall tool during the inspection. The SmartBall device was inserted into the pipeline through a 100mm drain near a hospital. Acoustic and sensor data was collected and recorded as the SmartBall tool traversed the pipeline for more than three kilometers.

From the survey results, Pure detected one (1) acoustic anomaly characteristic of a leak and zero (0) anomalies consistent with pockets of trapped gas.

SmartBall inside a pipe and working zone map

Ground microphones fail, SmartBall tool succeeds

Although Pure was confident in the SmartBall leak detection data, sometimes it’s worth a try to verify an anomaly with a complimentary technology. In this instance, ground microphones, regarded as a conventional a leak detection tool, were deployed to try and detect leak sounds. Although the suspect area was marked, neither Pure nor the client could pick up leak-related sounds from the ground microphone.

Even though the leak was not picked up by the ground microphone, Pure was confident that the acoustic signature from the SmartBall was caused by a leak, based on more than 15 years of experience identifying leaks. That confidence and experience proved right, and when the suspected area was excavated, the leak was located within a meter of where the data analyst calculated the leak to be.

The results gave the City of Ottawa actionable data regarding the condition of their pipeline, and the City was able to fix the leak reducing non-revenue water loss and any potentially costly damage caused by the leak. It’s a great example of a proactive utility taking efforts to improve the reliability of its services.

Lyon City Square

With a population of nearly 500,000, Lyon is the third largest city in France, a vibrant metropolis known for its modern Confluence district as well as Renaissance palaces and Roman ruins that date back more than 2,000 years.

While Lyon’s historic architecture has aged well, the same cannot be said for its buried infrastructure. In June of 2016, Suez retained the services of Pure Technologies (Pure) to perform a SmartBall® inspection of two critical water mains, the Grigny Water Main and Les Halles Water Main, both located near Lyon. The inspections, conducted over two days, were part of a long-term condition assessment program for the city.

As an industrial services and solutions company specialising in securing and recovering resources, Suez provides its customers (local authorities, industry and consumers) with concrete solutions to address new resource management challenges.

Pipelines constructed of ductile iron and cast iron

The Grigny Water Main is a 500mm (20-inch) cast iron pipeline that transfers Water from the Grigny Pump Station to Saint Romain en Gier. The SmartBall inspection started at a previously installed 150mm (6-inch) tap and ended at a previously installed 150mm tap in Saint Romain en Gier, and covered a distance of approximately 8.6 kilometers (5.3 miles).

The following day Pure deployed a second SmartBall inspection, this time on the Les Halles Water Main, a 400mm (16-inch) ductile iron pipeline that transfers water from Les Halles to Saint Laurent D Chamousset. The purpose of the inspection was to locate and identify leaks and pockets of trapped gas along the 2.9 kilometer (1.8 mile) section of pipeline.

SmartBall under a gas pocket inside a water pipe

SmartBall® tool chosen for ease of use and sensitivity to gas pockets and small leaks

The SmartBall tool was chosen as an inspection platform for its sensitivity to small leaks, minimal pipeline modifications required for insertion and extraction and its ability to inspect long distances in a single deployment. The free-swimming, acoustic-based SmartBall tool is inserted into the pipeline flow, and after traversing the inspection length, the tool is captured and extracted at a point downstream.

During inspection, the SmartBall tool’s location is tracked at known points along the alignment to correlate the inspection data with specific locations. As the SmartBall tool approaches a leak, the acoustic signal will increase and crescendo at the point when the tool passes the leak.

For this project, 13 surface-mounted acoustic sensors (SMS) were placed along the Grigny pipeline to track the SmartBall tool during the inspection. For the Les Halles inspection, five (5) SMS were used to track the tool. SmartBall receivers were connected to the sensors on the pipeline at locations to track the tool during inspection.

An extraction net was used to extract the SmartBall tool once it traversed the entire length of both pipelines, and the data was evaluated by Pure analysts to identify acoustic anomalies associated with leaks and pockets of trapped gas.

Screen with Data Analysis

SmartBall survey detects two leaks and zero (0) gas pockets

The acoustic data recorded by the SmartBall tool was analyzed and cross-referenced with the position data from each SmartBall Receiver (SBR) to determine a location for each acoustic anomaly.

From the results conducted on the Grigny Water Main, Pure detected a total of two (2) acoustic anomalies characteristic of leaks and zero (0) anomalies consistent with pockets of trapped gas. Pure analysts classified one leak as a small leak, and a second as a large leak.

For the survey of the Les Halles Water Main, Pure detected zero (0) anomalies characteristic of leaks and zero (0) acoustic anomalies characteristic of pockets of trapped gas.

The results gave Suez actionable data regarding the condition of the pipelines, and the confidence to move forward on fixing the leaks. It’s a great example of a water authority taking proactive efforts at keeping its network in healthy shape.

SmartBall with case and insertion tools
Big City Landscape View

Rand Water is the largest bulk water utility in Africa and one of the largest in the world, providing bulk potable water to more than 23 million people in Gauteng, parts of Mpumalanga, the Free State and North West – an area that stretches over 31,000 square kilometres. Rand Water’s distribution network includes over 3,300 kilometres of large-diameter pipelines.

In 2015 Rand Water embarked on the largest proactive bulk water pipeline condition assessment  investigation ever in South Africa. An important part of the assessment includes inline non-disruptive leak detection inspections covering just over 2,200 kilometers of Rand Water’s bulk pipeline network.

SmartBall in a case with the laptop used to control it.

SmartBall leak detection platform used for most inspections

The free-swimming SmartBall™ leak detection system is utilized to perform the majority of these inspections. The multi-sensor tool is used to detect and locate the acoustic signature related to leaks and gas pockets in pressurized pipelines. While the SmartBall is deployed, the pipeline remains in service, limiting disruption to customers.

Unlike traditional listening tools like correlators, which have limited success on large diameter pipes, the free-flowing SmartBall technology provides a high degree of accuracy, since as the ball rolls, it can inspect every inch of the main to detect leaks and gas pockets.

Big pipes

High pressure, high flow pipelines can make insertion and extraction difficult

Due to the vast transfer distances and varying topography within the supply area, the Rand Water system is characterized by pipelines operating under extreme pressures (higher than 16 bar [232 psi] and up to 40 bar [580 psi]) and high flow velocities (higher than 2 m/s), historically beyond safe operating limits of the standard SmartBall insertion and extraction equipment.

This rendered some of the pipelines unsuitable for inspection unless a solution could be found to safely insert and extract SmartBall from a high pressure/high flow pipeline.

Worker inspecting pipe

Pure works with SSIS PIpeline Services to help solve this unique challenge

Pure Technologies embraces research and development (R&D), with a strong design focus on continuously developing new inspection technologies and improve existing systems. SSIS Pipeline Services, which represents Pure Technologies in SA, challenged the Pure R&D team to find a solution for this unique high pressure Rand Water problem.

From this challenge, the Titan system was born.

Introducing Titan insertion and extraction system

Following extensive R&D and pre-delivery testing, the first-of-its-kind enlarged Titan insertion and extraction system was delivered to South Africa in May 2016. The system included a retrofitted high pressure LDEN (Large Diameter Extraction Net) kit capable for use in pressure environments up to 40 bar (600 PSI) and higher.

Workers with high pressure pipes

SSIS staff underwent shop training at the hands of one of the mechanical design engineers from Pure, followed by hands-on training on a number of high pressure, high velocity Rand Water pipelines.

To date, the Titan system has been used safely and successfully on pipelines up to 2900mm in diameter, operating at 2.5 m/s and at pressures up to 18 bar (261 psi). The system’s highest recorded operating pressure was at 23 bar (333 psi) on a 900mm diameter pipeline with 1.5 m/s flow.

Testing the waters, pushing the limits

The Titan system now enables SSIS to safely perform SmartBall leak and gas pocket inspections on high pressure pipelines previously off limits.

The latest successful test illustrates the SSIS commitment to the local water industry through innovation and dedicated support from Pure Technologies. It again proves that no problem is too big to solve, and every challenge can be overcome through dedicated teamwork and cutting-edge innovation.

Massive pressured water leak

According to AWWA’s 2016 Benchmarking Survey, the average water and wastewater utility has seven breaks per 100 miles of piping every year. Tip-top systems experience just four breaks in that distance, while those at the bottom have 18.

While it’s interesting to note the difference in break rates, it’s unfair to compare one utility to another, as a multitude of factors come into play as to why pipelines can deteriorate to state of failure. Countless sources of stress both inside and outside a pipe related to geographical location, soil-pipe type interactions, age, and construction are among factors that can take their toll on the pipe’s condition.

Worker inspecting pipe

For utilities, the one constant across the spectrum is the acknowledgment that simply replacing pipeline assets is cost prohibitive, and that advanced condition assessment services like those provided by Pure Technologies (Pure) can help utilities confidently make informed decisions that significantly reduce capital and operating costs.

Single-episode blowouts garner all the attention

While single-episode blowouts are quite rare, these tend to garner most media attention, and cause the most obvious blowbacks to the pipeline operator. What the public doesn’t usually notice are the pinhole leaks, hairline cracks, corrosion and leaking gaskets that tend to occur first.

Most catastrophic failures are caused by a sudden unexpected stress such as a water hammer acting on an existing weak point in the pipe. There is a widely held belief that the failure process is a simple one, where a pipe corrodes to the point at which it can no longer withstand the applied internal and external forces, resulting in a main break. However, research has shown that the failure process is more complex than expected.

Corrosion plays a significant role in water main failures, but soil-pipe interactions, manufacturing techniques and human error are also important factors. Failures also take place in multiple stages rather than in a single episode. Early damage not only weakens portions of the pipe, it also allows water to escape, causing corrosion and washing out of the supporting soil.

Broken water pipe on a street

Age alone does not indicate high-risk pipes

Pipes at highest risk are typically constructed using dated materials or methods, running through an area with heavy vehicle traffic. Urban centers typically represent significant loss potential from damage caused by water main breaks as a result of high-density buildings, underground infrastructure, important traffic thoroughfares, and economic loss potential of power, gas, water utilities and legal cases.

The net result is that age alone cannot be relied on as an indicator of a high-risk pipe.

Broken pipe

Types of pipe material and typical cause of failure

Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) has a unique failure mechanism: high strength steel pre-stressing wires that provide strength to the pipe can become distressed and reduce the structural integrity of the pipe. Broken wires can be caused by physical damage to the pipe, corrosion, or hydrogen embrittlement.

Areas of broken wires may be accompanied by leaks, especially in pipelines smaller than 48 inches in diameter, where the internal steel cylinder corrodes at the same rate as the wires or where water escaping through the joint encourages corrosion. Leakage has been proven to be a key indicator of structural condition in lined cylinder pipe, a type of PCCP in which the prestressing wires are placed directly on the steel cylinder. These types of leaks can create voids around the pipe and introduce added stress at an existing weak point.

Cast iron pipes corrode, become brittle and are prone to cracking. Many older North American cities have cast iron pipes that were installed in the 1800s, prior to the existence of pipeline standards, when methods of construction were non-uniform and advanced quality control programs did not exist. Consequently, many pipelines were installed using what are considered poor construction practices by today’s standards.

Ductile iron pipes have failure mechanisms similar to those of cast iron pipes; however they become less brittle and consequently degrade at a slower rate. These pipes may be capable of supporting large leaks for longer periods of time without failing immediately.

Plastic and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes are less prone to corrosion and less brittle than iron pipes. Failures in these pipes are often traced to leaking joints where the escaping water creates voids around the pipeline, causing unplanned stresses on the pipe.

Steel pipes primarily fail due to loss of integrity at welds, and external corrosion causing severe pitting and weakening the pipe wall. Both losses of joint integrity and through-wall corrosion pits lead to leakage long before failure. Older steel pipes in aggressive environments are capable of sustaining massive levels of leakage for decades before failing.

Workers digging with mechanical shovel

Making ongoing condition assessment part of proactive asset management

While pipe material and typical pipe stresses are factors that can contribute to a state of pipe failure, it remains impossible to compare one pipeline to another, and to make generalized statements about remaining service life, especially based on age and depreciation. Instead, it pays to conduct ongoing condition assessment, and then to use that risk-driven asset data collection to reduce the likelihood of replacing pipe that can safely and effectively serve communities for several more years.

With stories of broken mains and aging infrastructure attracting more public attention, pipeline owners face difficult questions about long-term planning for their water and wastewater linear assets. In particular, when and where to focus renewal funding to service these aging networks.

However, as pipeline owners know, precise answers aren’t easy, especially without good data to back up an assumption. Lack of accurate and precise data can lead to an expensive guessing game when trying to identify high risk assets for renewal.

It has been suggested that over 70 percent1 of replaced pipe still has remaining service life. Therefore focusing on collecting the right condition data to make the right decisions at the right time is critical in making the most out of budgets.

Pipeline owners leverage data to make better decisions

We live in an era of big data, and with the help of Pure Technologies, many pipeline owners are beginning to understand how to leverage this data to make better decisions.

Data-based decision making can be used throughout the lifecycle of a pipeline asset to get a clear understanding of the current pipeline condition and its remaining useful life.

Targeted testing results chart

Small amount of sampling data leads to large sampling error and uncertainty

Clear understanding starts with data collection that specifically targets samples along the pipeline. However, not all sampling data is created equal. For example, while a small amount of sampling data gives you some information, it also leads to large sampling error and uncertainty on the true overall condition of your pipeline. This is why so much pipe with remaining service life is replaced, as decisions are made from data with large sampling error and uncertainty.

On the other hand, a large number of samples leads to smaller sampling error, and when you combine less error with more data, higher confidence decisions can be made.

Small amount of sampling data leads to large sampling error and uncertainty

Clear understanding starts with data collection that specifically targets samples along the pipeline. However, not all sampling data is created equal. For example, while a small amount of sampling data gives you some information, it also leads to large sampling error and uncertainty on the true overall condition of your pipeline. This is why so much pipe with remaining service life is replaced, as decisions are made from data with large sampling error and uncertainty.

On the other hand, a large number of samples leads to smaller sampling error, and when you combine less error with more data, higher confidence decisions can be made.

Colored candies and broken pipe

Using coloured candies to understand distribution principle

One way to demonstrate this principle is to examine a bag of colored candies. If you randomly sample a few pieces of candy from the bag, you would be uncertain about the proportion of blues to reds to greens because you don’t know the actual colour distribution.

However, if you were to increase the number of samples, and group this data into color bins, you would begin to have more clarity and understand the distribution of colored candies.

Coloured candies distribution chart

The more samples, the more certainty in the distribution data

In a way, this same principle of sampling applies to collecting pipe condition data. Sample size is important, and the more targeted samples you take, the more certain you are in the distribution of data. This provides owners with more confidence to make good decisions relating to renewal strategies.

That’s where Pure Technologies can help, with innovative technology and expert analysis that delivers precise data. This actionable information helps owners make confident decisions on the management of their pipelines.

Overall, it pays to invest in better data to better understand the true condition of your pipeline. True power lies in balancing the cost of data collection against the cost associated with uncertainty, and the more confident you are in your data, the more certain you are in your decision making, especially when making high-cost pipeline management decisions.

1: Patterson, J. and Phinney, T. (2008). “Assessing aging cast and ductile iron force mains.” Proc., Underground Construction Technology (UCT) Conference, Atlanta, GA, Jan.

It was a perfect day for an inspection.

Under a crisp blue sky, in the polders along a major motorway near Rotterdam, more than 40 water professionals from The Netherlands, Australia and the UK gathered to witness a unique project undertaken by the water utility Evides Watercompany.

The purpose of the project was to showcase the 24-sensor PipeDiver®, an innovative tool from Pure Technologies designed to assess and address large-diameter metallic pipelines.

As the second-largest water utility in the Netherlands, Evides was open to exploring new ways to reduce risks and extend the service life of their buried infrastructure.

Workers looking up

“Our first reaction is positive. PipeDiver proved to be a suitable tool for one of our most important inspection needs: corrosion of cement lined steel pipes. We are especially glad the tool was able to pass a butterfly valve, and to be inserted and extracted through 600mm manholes, as this greatly improves operability and cost effectiveness. Bart Bergmans

Project Manager, Infrastructure Asset Management, Evides Watercompany.

Inspected large-diameter steel pipeline runs along critical highway

The Evides TL2.60 pipeline is a cement-lined 800mm (31.5 inch) steel pipe, with 2.8 kilometers (1.7 miles) of the inspected pipeline running along an important highway connecting Rotterdam to The Hague. The transmission pipeline was selected for its criticality and some operational challenges that Evides wanted to address, including the presence of an inline butterfly valve that precluded other inspection tools from performing at this trial.

Prior to inspection, Evides created a series of predetermined defects made on a specific pipe segment in a research environment. The objective was to validate the tool against a range of known defects in a pipe with the same characteristics as the pipe inspected. During this process, all defects within the stated sensitivity were detected by PipeDiver at the precise location, providing confidence for the upcoming live inspection.

PipeDiver insertion

24-detector PipeDiver launches with eager anticipation and high expectation

All eyes were on the launch of Pure’s 24D PipeDiver tool, scheduled for the first of three identical runs, designed for data redundancy.

PipeDiver is a flexible, free-swimming condition assessment tool for pressurized water and wastewater pipelines. The video-equipped tool is ideal for critical pipelines that cannot be removed from service due to lack of redundancy or operational constraints.

Unlike more restrictive assessment tools, PipeDiver is a neutrally buoyant tool that flows with the product and easily navigates through most butterfly valves, tees and bends in the pipeline, delivering electromagnetic (EM) data for a variety of pipe type and materials.

24D PipeDiver tool developed for locating corrosion on metallic pipe

While the PipeDiver tool has traditionally been deployed on prestressed concrete pipe to identify and locate broken prestressing wire wraps, the 24-detector PipeDiver has been specifically developed for metallic pipelines. For the Evides inspection, the PipeDiver tool with 24 electromagnetic sensors was used to locate and identify steel pipes with anomalies associated with corrosion or reduced wall thickness.

“This inspection and related validations have shown that PipeDiver is able to deliver results that allow for well-founded replacement decision making of large-diameter, cement coated, steel pipelines.”

PipeDiver working inside a pipe

High definition camera records passage for all invitees to watch

Because the inspection exercise had so many invited utilities invested in the outcome, Evides provided inline cameras parked at both the butterfly valve and extraction point to record in real-time the passage of the PipeDiver. Thanks to the cameras, the world could watch.

The insertions went off without a hitch, and the PipeDiver sailed through the pipeline obstacle course with ease, gathering EM data along the route.

Results support long-term asset management decisions

Of the approximately 237 pipe sections inspected during the real inspection, four pipes were identified with anomalies indicative of cylinder wall loss.

After the inspection, three out of the four locations were dug-up to verify the reported defects, using non-destructive ultrasonic techniques. On each of the locations, defects were found, and the actual material loss was in the range reported by Pure Technologies.

Overall, the results proved the worth of PipeDiver as an advanced condition assessment tool able to deliver precise, actionable data on metallic pipes. The exercise showed the PipeDiver tool as a cost-effective solution versus methods that have operational constraints or require a shutdown or dewatering, or in this case, taken out of service.

This Evides inspection marked the first condition assessment of metallic pipe using the 24D PipeDiver in Europe, an exercise that confirmed the efficacy of the tool’s sensor technology and validated once more the effectiveness of the platform to inspect pipelines.

Using pipeline condition assessment platform like the PipeDiver tool can help utilities like Evides to support long-term asset management decisions on their underground infrastructure. The water world couldn’t agree more.

Workers from 14 utilities learning about new technology

14 global utilities in attendance

The PipeDiver project offered the opportunity for 14 of the most forward utilities from around the world to share experiences and learn about innovative technologies used to assess and address large-diameter metallic pipelines. The utilities included:

  • From Australia: Yarra Valley Water, Seq Water, Unity Water, Gold Coast Water, Water Corporation, Sun Water, SA Water
  • From the United Kingdom: Severn Trent Water, Anglian Water, Welsh Water
  • From the Netherlands: Waternet, Vitens, WML, PWN, Evides Watercompany
Amsterdam, Holland

Would you take on a new pipeline inspection challenge, even if you knew it would land you in hot water?

Recently Pure Technologies (Pure) was able to chalk up success by adding one more type of pipeline to its inspection resumé. In this instance it was a district heating pipeline owned and operated by Eneco, one of the largest producers and suppliers of natural gas, electricity and heat, serving more than two million business and residential customers in the Netherlands.

District heating make sustainable sense

The concept of heat pipelines makes a lot of environmental sense. Throughout northern Europe, many municipalities and power generators have built closed systems of vacuum-insulated pipelines that circulate hot water from power plants and incinerators, sometimes above 100°C, through radiators in houses, businesses and other structures. This is an efficient method of heating buildings, and boasts a 98 percent heat retention rate during transmission.

SmartBall with case and insertion tools

Pure performs SmartBall leak and gas pocket detection survey

Recently Eneco contracted Pure to perform a comprehensive SmartBall® leak and gas pocket detection survey of the Centrale Merwedekanaal to WOS District Heating System. This is a 500 mm steel pipeline within a 700 mm steel pipeline of which a vacuum is created in the annular space to insulate the hot water. The survey purpose was to locate leaks and pockets of trapped gas present in the pipeline at the time of inspection.

The subject pipeline, originally installed in 1985, was suspected of having a leak, owning to an observation of water present in the annular space. As mentioned, the heating system pipeline consists of an inner 500 mm steel pipeline and an outer 700 mm steel pipeline, with a vacuum maintained in-between. The lines, constructed both above ground and below ground, incorporate numerous 90 degree bends and u-shapes, to allow for expansion and contraction as the product temperature changes.

Tracking with a laptop connected to the SmartBall

During the project, Pure inspected approximately 2.6 kilometers of the pipeline, with the goal to locate the leak(s) causing the water loss.

For the survey, Pure proposed the SmartBall leak and gas pocket detection system, a free-swimming, acoustic-based technology that detects anomalous acoustic activity associated with leaks or gas pockets in pressurized pipelines.

While other leak detection techniques such as noise loggers and correlators may identify a single leak or gas pocket between each sensor, they cannot accurately locate the limits of an anomaly nor identify multiple anomalies. In this specific case, the use of noise loggers is hindered by isolation. The SmartBall tool travels directly past each acoustic anomaly of interest on the inner pipe and thus significant advantages are recognized.

Unique challenges to overcome

The standard procedure for tracking the SmartBall tool depends on positioning acoustic sensors on the outside of the inspected pipe and listening to the device as it passes.

Since the line is so well insulated from heat loss, it is also well insulated against sound transfer, which meant it unlikely for good tracking on any sensor mounted to the outer 700 mm pipe. Additionally, Eneco was understandably averse to compromising the integrity of the vacuum seal of the line, and therefore did not wish to expose the 500 mm pipe to mount sensors.

In the absence of external tracking means, other reference points in the data are critical for accurately locating anomalies within the pipeline.  SmartBall contains gyroscopes that can measure bends in the pipeline that it traverses, and as there were many aforementioned 90 degree bends, these were clearly seen in the data.  The bends in the Eneco pipeline made for great geospatial reference points and therefore allowed for locating anomalies with relatively high confidence.

Pipeline over the surface

SmartBall tool deployed to survey district heating pipeline

The acoustic data recorded by the SmartBall tool was analyzed and cross-referenced with the position data. From the data collected and analyzed, the SmartBall device detected five (5) possible weaknesses, which were clearly visible in the data. Zero (0) gas pockets were detected.

The results give Eneco actionable data regarding the condition of their pipeline, and despite challenges, the assessment is proving its worth. It’s a great example of a proactive utility taking efforts to maximize its capital expenditures.

Lisboa Map

SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora distributes drinking water to 350,000 customers in the Lisbon region of Portugal.

Drinking water systems degrade over time, with the useful life of the pipe and component parts often lasting for decades. Of course, age is only part of the equation. The deterioration of any particular pipeline depends on a multitude of factors, including pipe material and class. To complicate matters, factors such as soil environment, chemical properties of the water, climate changes, and operational particulars can all contribute to weakened pipes.

All that said, when a suspected leak develops in a pressured main after only five years in operation, it’s important to locate and repair the leak and determine what operational, environmental or installation factors led to the failure.

That was the situation faced by Intermunicipal Service Oeiras and Amadora, a water management company responsible for the distribution of drinking water for the municipalities of Amadora and Oeiras in the Lisbon region of Portugal. SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora distributes water to more than 350,000 customers who have come to rely on the public company for their water services.

The F. Passarinhos-Atalaia duct is a pressurized pipeline that supplies water to one of eight reservoirs operated by SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora in the municipality of Amadora. Installed in 2007, the large 600 mm (24-inch) transmission main, made from ductile iron material, delivers drinking water to approximately 31 percent of Amadora’s residents, making it a critical part of the municipality’s buried infrastructure.

Pressure drop indicated possibility of critical leak

In 2012, SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora detected a noticeable pressure drop in the system, indicating the possibility of a critical leak, the predecessor of a potential rupture that could negatively impact the environment and significantly disrupt day-to-day life in the community.

When traditional leak detection methods—geophones and acoustic correlators­ were unable to detect the location and size of the leak, SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora called on its contractor to perform a leak detection survey using the innovative SmartBall tool from Pure Technologies (Pure).  Because of the criticality of the line, the survey was conducted while the pipeline remained in operation.

Since 2007 utilities all over the world have been using Pure’s SmartBall pipeline inspection technology to save millions of dollars in water loss and prevented water main breaks.

SmartBall inside a pipe

Pure’s SmartBall tool can be launched while the main remains in operation.

SmartBall tool launched without disrupting service

Pure’s patented SmartBall tool is an aluminum-core, foam-shell ball packed with several different sensors that can be launched into a water main without any disruption to client service.

Unlike traditional external listening tools that have limited success on large diameter pipes, SmartBall is the industry’s only free-flowing multi-sensor technology that provides the highest degree of accuracy, since as the ball rolls, it can inspect every inch of a water main to detect potential problems such as leaks and gas pockets. Its highly sensitive acoustic sensors can locate ‘pinhole’ leaks and gas pockets within a location accuracy of 1.8 meters.

The SmartBall was inserted into the pipeline through a 6” gate valve and the journey took two hours and 49 minutes. One small leak was detected, 863 meters from the insertion site. This leak was repaired and allowed SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora to recover costs associated the loss of non-revenue water, had it remained undetected.

Assess assets from inside the pipe rather than from external clues

Leak detection is a necessary step to reduce water loss and prevent major water main breaks. The benefits of leak detection are obvious in increased revenues, lower risk of contamination, lower liability due to a reduction of main breaks, and increased public trust.

Although the SmartBall tool detected just one leak, the inspection gave SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora the capacity to assess assets from inside the pipe rather than drawing conclusions from indirect, external clues. If leaks are discovered early, operators can take necessary action to makes repairs before they become a major problem.

This process allows progressive operators like SIMAS Oeiras e Amadora to develop a sustainable long-term strategy for managing their critical buried assets.

Amsterdam, Holland

Would you take on a new pipeline inspection challenge, even if you knew it would land you in hot water?

Recently Pure Technologies (Pure) was able to chalk up success by adding one more type of pipeline to its inspection resumé. In this instance it was a district heating pipeline owned and operated by Eneco, one of the largest producers and suppliers of natural gas, electricity and heat, serving more than two million business and residential customers in the Netherlands.

District heating make sustainable sense

The concept of heat pipelines makes a lot of environmental sense. Throughout northern Europe, many municipalities and power generators have built closed systems of vacuum-insulated pipelines that circulate hot water from power plants and incinerators, sometimes above 100°C, through radiators in houses, businesses and other structures. This is an efficient method of heating buildings, and boasts a 98 percent heat retention rate during transmission.

SmartBall with case and insertion tools

Pure performs SmartBall leak and gas pocket detection survey

Recently Eneco contracted Pure to perform a comprehensive SmartBall® leak and gas pocket detection survey of the Centrale Merwedekanaal to WOS District Heating System. This is a 500 mm steel pipeline within a 700 mm steel pipeline of which a vacuum is created in the annular space to insulate the hot water. The survey purpose was to locate leaks and pockets of trapped gas present in the pipeline at the time of inspection.

The subject pipeline, originally installed in 1985, was suspected of having a leak, owning to an observation of water present in the annular space. As mentioned, the heating system pipeline consists of an inner 500 mm steel pipeline and an outer 700 mm steel pipeline, with a vacuum maintained in-between. The lines, constructed both above ground and below ground, incorporate numerous 90 degree bends and u-shapes, to allow for expansion and contraction as the product temperature changes.

Tracking with a laptop connected to the SmartBall

During the project, Pure inspected approximately 2.6 kilometers of the pipeline, with the goal to locate the leak(s) causing the water loss.

For the survey, Pure proposed the SmartBall leak and gas pocket detection system, a free-swimming, acoustic-based technology that detects anomalous acoustic activity associated with leaks or gas pockets in pressurized pipelines.

While other leak detection techniques such as noise loggers and correlators may identify a single leak or gas pocket between each sensor, they cannot accurately locate the limits of an anomaly nor identify multiple anomalies. In this specific case, the use of noise loggers is hindered by isolation. The SmartBall tool travels directly past each acoustic anomaly of interest on the inner pipe and thus significant advantages are recognized.

Unique challenges to overcome

The standard procedure for tracking the SmartBall tool depends on positioning acoustic sensors on the outside of the inspected pipe and listening to the device as it passes. Since the line is so well insulated from heat loss, it is also well insulated against sound transfer, which meant it unlikely for good tracking on any sensor mounted to the outer 700 mm pipe. Additionally, Eneco was understandably averse to compromising the integrity of the vacuum seal of the line, and therefore did not wish to expose the 500 mm pipe to mount sensors. In the absence of external tracking means, other reference points in the data are critical for accurately locating anomalies within the pipeline.  SmartBall contains gyroscopes that can measure bends in the pipeline that it traverses, and as there were many aforementioned 90 degree bends, these were clearly seen in the data.  The bends in the Eneco pipeline made for great geospatial reference points and therefore allowed for locating anomalies with relatively high confidence.

Pipeline over the surface

SmartBall tool deployed to survey district heating pipeline

The acoustic data recorded by the SmartBall tool was analyzed and cross-referenced with the position data. From the data collected and analyzed, the SmartBall device detected five (5) possible weaknesses, which were clearly visible in the data. Zero (0) gas pockets were detected. The results give Eneco actionable data regarding the condition of their pipeline, and despite challenges, the assessment is proving its worth. It’s a great example of a proactive utility taking efforts to maximize its capital expenditures.

Scottish Water takes innovative and responsible approaches to pipeline management. To assess the condition of its Newmore Raw Water Main, the water provider used PipeDiver™ inline inspection technology, the first use of the technology in Europe.

Scottish Water (SW) is the fourth largest water and wastewater provider in the United Kingdom (UK), serving more than 5 million customers in 2.4 million households. As one of the country’s largest businesses, with a £1 billion (US$1.54 billion) annual turnover, SW also acts as the wholesaler of water and wastewater services in the competitive market for business customers in Scotland.

A leader in the industry, SW has long undertaken innovative and responsible approaches to pipeline management. For its inventory of strategic infrastructure assets, the water operator is employing advanced techniques to build detailed criticality and integrity profiles. These profiles will be used to develop and maintain dynamic and fully detailed pipeline management plans.

Spray released from air valve and Pure crew readying PipeDiver for insertion

(Left) Pure and Scottish Water crew standing by as spray released from air valve. (Right) Pure crew readying PipeDiver for insertion to assess condition of Newmore Raw Water Main.

Inspection covered 14.6 kilometers (9.1 miles) and spanned 3,382 pipes

Scottish Water had long been working on conducting a risk-based condition assessment of its transmission main that delivers raw water from the Redburn to a reservoir feeding the Newmore water treatment plant, in the Inverness region of Scotland.

The purpose of the inspection was to locate and identify leaks and pipes with stress, using proprietary leak detection and electromagnetic technologies. The inspection covered 14.6 kilometers (9.1 miles) and spanned a total of 3,382 pipes composed of 685-millimeter (27-inch) and 762-millimeter (30-inch) pipe.

PipeDiver technology locates and quantifies stress

Pure Technologies, in partnership with WRc, began its initial screening assessment in March 2015 with SmartBall™ technology, a free-swimming leak and gas pocket detection tool used to record acoustic data on the pipeline. This data was evaluated to identify acoustic anomalies associated with leaks and pockets of trapped gas.

From the data, Pure identified 5 anomalies associated with leaks and no acoustic anomalies characteristic of pockets of trapped gas.

In August 2015, a few months after completing the leak detection survey, Pure mobilized its team to undertake a first within Europe – a structural condition assessment using PipeDiver™ technology, an inline tool used to locate and quantify distress.

The PipeDiver tool is free-swimming and comprised of three parts – a battery module, electromagnetic module and a tracking module. The electromagnetic sensors are located on each fin and collect a magnetic signature for each pipe section to identify anomalies that are produced by damage to the structural component for the integrity of the pipe.

Inspection results

The inspection determined 12 pipes with EM anomalies consistent with pipe distress damage.

To repair, replace or leave alone? That is the risk-based question

The PipeDiver inspection determined that 12 pipes in the Newmore Transmission Main displayed electromagnetic anomalies consistent with damage. Effective analysis of electromagnetic data first requires baseline knowledge of how the electromagnetic signal behaves when no damage is present. This baseline is then compared to the data signal received when damage occurs on the pipe. To understand how the data signal responds, Pure performed calibration scans on pipes similar to the inspected pipe, provided by Scottish Water.

While the electromagnetic technology provides data for structural deterioration, the challenge is to determine how much damage creates an unacceptable level of risk, thereby requiring intervention actions.

Pure has developed an innovative approach for pipeline management using structural models along with hydraulic evaluation data to deliver a Pipe Performance Curve used for the management of a pressure main. The decision-making tool plots stress versus pressure, and will allow SW to understand when a pipe is trending toward ultimate failure, which in turn will help in making defensible investment decisions.

The Usutu Water Scheme supplies raw water to a number of coal-fired power stations and towns in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The bulk water pipeline, completed in the late 1970s, consists of large diameter (DN1300 mm) pre-stressed concrete non-cylinder pipe (PCP) that links two mains for a total of 90 kilometers between the Rietspruit, Davel and Kriel Reservoirs.

Recognizing that the infrastructure might be reaching the end of its lifespan, the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) called on SSIS Pipeline Services, which represents Pure Technologies in South Africa, to conduct a comprehensive condition assessment of the pipelines.

Destructing the old to help evaluate the current pipe state

Due to a lack of records, DWS provided Pure with old removed pipes, as well as spare pipes that were destructively evaluated to determine the design specs and calibrate the electromagnetic signal to accurately detect wire breaks.

Every pipeline is unique, and if a utility has a strong understanding of the operational conditions of different areas in their system, an appropriate and defensible inspection plan can be developed, pipe by pipe. Pure came onboard bringing its inspection, risk assessment and engineering analysis services, along with its comprehensive suite of technologies to survey the pipeline for leaks, gas pockets and wire breaks.

Civil Engineering Cover June 2015

Pipediver Field crew operators insert the PipeDiver inspection tool into the pipeline.

Field crew operators insert the PipeDiver inspection tool

Pipediver Field crew operators insert the PipeDiver inspection tool into the pipeline.

Ostrich

Project begins with leak detection surveys

For DWS, Pure and SSIS began with leak and air pocket detection surveys, employing Pure’s proprietary SmartBall™ technology. As the free-swimming SmartBall tool rolls through the pipeline, it collects acoustic data. The acoustic sensor identifies the sound of water leaving the pipeline, or the sound of trapped air at the top of the pipeline, which can reduce the water flow and increase strain on the pumps.

Easy to deploy, the SmartBall tool is an excellent screening tool for PCP inspection programs by identifying leaks and air pockets in the main. These areas provide a preliminary look at the condition of the pipeline.

As a follow-up to the SmartBall survey, SSIS employed its Sahara® platform, a tethered tool with attached audio-video surveys to gain a better understanding of the leak locations along the pipeline. A total of ten leaks were detected and accurately located using SmartBall and Sahara.

PipeDiver™ electromagnetic survey evaluates the pre-stressing wires

Because the Usutu pipelines could not be taken out of service, crews inserted Pure’s revolutionary PipeDiver™ tool, which features collapsible fins that allows it to pass through sharp bends, diameter reductions and butterfly valves as it is carried by the flow of water.

The free-swimming PipeDiver inspection platform uses electromagnetic (EM) sensors to evaluate the existing condition of the pre-stressing wires. EM inspections collect a magnetic signature for each pipe section to identify anomalies that indicate zones of wire break damage. The presence of wire breaks in concrete pressure pipe is often a sign of impending failure. This inspection method is the best available technology to determine the baseline condition of the PCP mains.

While the PipeDiver survey was performed, the critical pipeline remained in operation. The entire 90 kilometers of pipeline was inspected in three runs, and the inspections found the majority of pipes to be in good condition.

Investigation replaces uncertainty with peace-of-mind risk assessment

In addition to using to the monitoring technologies described above, Pure also conducted a variety of other risk assessment and engineering analysis services for the project.

This included field verification data to compile a calibrated hydraulic model to mime the steady state and transient behaviour of the pipelines. The results showed that DWS’s current operating procedures worked well to control the flow and prevent pressure surges.

Pure Technologies also completed a finite element analysis (FEA) to quantify the structural ramifications of the broken pre-stressing wires detected by electromagnetic inspection. This analysis was used in tandem with the electromagnetic inspection results in the risk assessment.

DWS sets a good example for managing its transmission main assets

The project highlights the value of embracing a proactive pipeline condition assessment programme using best practices, expertise, and cutting-edge technology.

The investigation confirmed the asset life can be extended, while managing DWS’s exposure to risk and sets a good example for other South African utilities to follow in developing a sustainable long-term strategy for managing their asset

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Small leaks sink big ships – the same can be said for large-diameter pipes in utility networks. While large leaks or ruptures are seen as newsworthy stories accompanied by images of water flowing down the streets; smaller leaks can often be more devastating. Left undetected, they can add up over time, contributing significantly to Non-Revenue Water, and eventually, they too can lead to catastrophic pipeline failures.

Many utilities focus leak detection efforts on locating and repairing large leaks, with less priority being placed on identifying smaller ones. While repairing these large leaks is integral to preventing major failures that are expensive to the utility and disruptive to the surrounding environment; finding and repairing small leaks may present the best opportunity for long-term reduction of NRW loss.

Non-Revenue Water loss in the United States is estimated to be between 14 and 16 percent on average, while some systems are suspected to have revenue loss of up to 40 percent. In developing countries this number is much higher, with NRW loss as high as 65 percent in some areas.

The Benefits of Finding Small Leaks

Identifying and repairing small leaks early in their life may be the best course of action to address the problem of future water loss. Catching a leak while it is small prevents decades of sustained water loss that may not otherwise be detected. Over the years, unreported water loss could mean significant financial loss for the utility. Additionally, utilities that fail to proactively find and fix unreported water main leaks allow a growing backlog of new leaks to occur slowly over time. The result is mounting water loss volumes and “hot spots” in some locations; as a number of small leaks can ultimately lead to a major pipeline failure.

Acoustic leak detection sensors have been developed to run through in-service water trunk mains, bringing the sensor to the leak sound, rather than relying on the leak sound to find the sensor. Inline surveys work exceptionally well on large-diameter water transmission trunk mains, which are often poor at transmitting leak sounds and have limited access points to the pipe.

Inline Leak Detection Case Studies

Inline leak detection services have been proven to reliably identify very small leaks on water trunk mains with pinpoint precision, without requiring the water main to be taken out of service.

Engineering staff from Metropolitana Milanese in Milan were able to reduce their water loss and renew the condition of one of their critical mains by conducting proactive inline leak detection using Pure Technologies’ SmartBall® inline leak detection tool. They found a concentration of eight small leaks in a 240 meter section of pipe, exposing a weak area of pipe that could eventually lead to a critical failure. Metropolitana Milanese was then able to take proactive measures to defend against major ruptures.

SmartBall with case and insertion tools

The SmartBall tool is a free swimming leak detection technology that follows the product flow of the pipeline, picking up acoustic anomalies that identify and locate very small leaks and gas pockets. Because it has very little operational noise, the sizes of the detected leaks are minute. In optimal operational conditions leaks as small as 0.028 gal/min have been detected.

With the ability to detect even smaller leaks at 0.005 gal/min (in optimal conditions), Pure Technologies’ Sahara leak detection platform is another tool that can be deployed. Because it is a tethered system that is operator controlled, it is also able to map the location of the leak within 0.5 meters (3 feet). The Sahara tool simultaneously provides real-time visual inspection of live pipeline conditions thanks to an inline video system that travels along the pipe with the acoustic sensor.

Carried out regularly, comprehensive leak detection programs can not only identify large, potentially catastrophic leaks, but also smaller leaks that over time contribute to NRW and eventually become damaging themselves.

TRA Verification
Leaks on small-diameter distribution pipelines are the most common leaks a utility encounters. However, locating and repairing leaks on large-diameter transmission pipelines is also important in maintaining safe and reliable service delivery. These leaks are often more sparse, and therefore more difficult to locate which can lead to prolonged leakage and extensive water loss.

Utilities that have a leak detection program in place for their large-diameter transmission mains often achieve greater reductions in Non-Revenue Water (NRW), which is the amount of water lost before it reaches the customer. Furthermore, a leak detection inspection is a valuable step as part of a condition assessment program. Utilities can avoid expensive capital replacement programs by gathering real data on the condition of their pipelines, and addressing problems as they arise.

Bloem Water, who provides water services to the central region of South Africa, recently implemented an asset condition assessment project that included a comprehensive leak detection program using inline methods on a strategic 1200-millimeter (48-inch) Prestressed Concrete Pipe (PCP) that supplies the City of Bloemfontein with roughly 60 percent of its drinking water.

Inline leak detection is the most accurate method of locating leaks because it brings the acoustic sensor directly to the leak source, unlike traditional methods, such as correlators and listening sticks. These techniques lack the accuracy needed to locate leaks in larger pipes because the sound of a leak dissipates rapidly in large-diameter pipes.

Both SmartBall® and Sahara® leak detection technologies were successfully applied for Bloem Water. The total inspection covered 103 kilometers between De Hoek Reservoir and Brandkop Reservoir and identified 30 leaks.

To maximize efficiency, the SmartBall tool was used first to cover large sections of the distance in single deployments. The tool is a free-swimming leak detection platform that operates while the pipeline remains in service. It is equipped with an acoustic sensor that identifies acoustic anomalies associated with leaks; the acoustic signature is then analyzed to determine if it is a leak, air pocket, or an external noise.

SmartBall tool before insertion

The SmartBall tool prior to insertion.

Staff during tool extraction

Staff retrieving the tool at the end of inspection.

To maximize efficiency, the SmartBall tool was used first to cover large sections of the distance in single deployments. The tool is a free-swimming leak detection platform that operates while the pipeline remains in service. It is equipped with an acoustic sensor that identifies acoustic anomalies associated with leaks; the acoustic signature is then analyzed to determine if it is a leak, air pocket, or an external noise.

The SmartBall inspections were followed by selective Sahara audio and visual surveys to provide visual confirmation on the location of the leaks in order to aid in the interpretation of findings and plan interventions. The Sahara tool is a tethered inline leak location and condition assessment technology that pinpoints the location of leaks while at the same time inspecting the internal condition of the pipeline and verifying the cause of leakage using a combined acoustic hydrophone with an integrated CCTV camera.

Visual leak verification was also performed at all accessible components along the pipeline.

The leaks were identified and classified as either pipeline leaks (i.e. on the pipe barrel itself), component leaks (i.e. at valves, air valves, scour valves, etc.) or off-take leaks. The majority of the leaks were found to be at components while pipeline leaks were detected mainly on joints (i.e. where the PCP was connected with prefabricated steel joint pieces). Some of the leaks on these joints may be attributed to poor bedding, improper VJ connections, among other things.

The estimated water loss based on indicative leak sizing categories amounts to approximately 1200 kiloliters per day. Interestingly, of the pipeline leaks detected, only three leaks showed any surface signs of leakage. This reiterates the importance of not relying on surface inspections as the only means of detecting large-diameter pipeline leaks.

The findings of the latest leak detection surveys were compared to that of a previous Sahara leak detection inspection project performed in 2007-2009 to establish trends. This information, combined with a first order engineering evaluation of available pipeline design and manufacturing data, the failure history of the pipeline, operating records and the hydraulic behavior of the system were incorporated into a risk assessment model for the pipeline.

The leak detection findings, engineering evaluation and risk assessment were factored into the development of a pipeline-specific management strategy. Bloem Water can now implement this strategy as a guideline to proactively manage this valuable asset in order to prolong its remaining useful life, avoiding expensive capital replacement of the asset.

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Pipeline leak detection systems

SmartBall® – Leak Detection for Water Trunk Mains

SmartBall® is an innovative free-swimming inline leak detection technology designed to operate in a live water mains.

Smartball- Leak and Gas Pocket Detention

PureNET™ – Integrated Non Revenue Water and Asset Management Software

In order to help utilities manage all aspects of their complex water and wastewater systems, PureNET™ allows utilities to manage their infrastructure data more effectively.

Non-Revenue Water (NRW)

Non-Revenue Water (NRW)

Each day, billions of gallons of water are lost worldwide. Not only does this represent the loss of a precious resource that not everyone has access to; it represents a massive amount of lost revenue for the utilities that provide it.

Roughly US$14 billion in clean, non-revenue water is lost every year due to leaks and water main failures that could have been prevented.

If the loss of non-revenue water could be cut by half, an estimated US$2.9 billion could be generated and an additional 90 million people could have access to water.

Locating leaks on transmission mains represents the best opportunity for improvement.

Non-revenue water is defined as water that is produced for consumption but is lost before it reaches the customer. These losses are divided into three categories:

  • Physical (or real) losses due to poor operation and maintenance, lack of an active leak control system or the poor quality of underground assets.
  • Commercial (or apparent losses) include customer meter under-registration, data handling error or the theft of water in various forms such as illegal connections.
  • Unbilled authorized consumption includes water used for operational purposes, for fighting fires and water that is provided for free to certain consumer groups.

The best opportunity for improving this situation is by taking the first step in a NRW-reduction strategy and start focusing on leak and theft detection within transmission mains.

That’s where Pure comes in.

With over 2,000 miles of large-diameter pipelines inspected, Pure Technologies has located more than 4,000 leaks for an average of 2.2 leaks per mile using our advanced inline leak detection technologies significantly reducing NRW while saving millions of gallons of water and helping prevent failures for utilities around the world.

Two utilities – TMVW in Belgium and the Department of Sustainable Waste and Water in Gothenburg, Sweden – completed successful inspections to locate leaks and gas pockets using SmartBall® technology in early 2013.

TMVW’s inspection covered almost 15 kilometers (9 miles) of a 900-mm (36-inch) Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipe transmission main that runs from Willebroek to Buggenhout, locating 10 acoustic anomalies resembling leaks. Most leaks are located where the pipeline is known to have non-welded joints, and joint movement is suspected as the cause for leaks. The same pipeline was inspected in 2010, locating several leaks that were later repaired by TMVW.

In Gothenburg, Sweden, Department of Sustainable Waste and Water completed a successful leak detection survey on almost 5 kilometers (3 miles) of a pipeline that ranged in size from 600-mm to 800-mm in April 2013. The inspection identified 17 anomalies resembling leaks, with four classified as large leaks. While the utility staff suspected that the pipeline had a few leaks, they were surprised at the amount detected by the inspection. Work is currently underway to verify and repair the leaks found by SmartBall.

SmartBall TMVW
Gothenburg SmartBall

The SmartBall inspection tool is a non-destructive, free-swimming technology that measures the acoustic activity associated with leaks and gas pockets in pressurized pipelines. When acoustic anomalies are present, the data is analyzed to determine if it is a leak, gas pocket, or just an external sound. The tool is tracked using SmartBall receivers that are mounted along the pipeline at strategic locations.

Regular leak detection inspections can identify leaks that may not be visible at the surface and have presumably been leaking for a long time. By repairing leaks, utilities can reduce their non-revenue water and prevent pipeline failures, as leaks are often an indication of pipeline deterioration.

Locating and eliminating gas pockets is also beneficial because it reduces pressure on pumps that are attempting to pump water past a pocket. As they grow in size, gas pockets can significantly reduce the flow and capacity in a pipeline.

 

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Pipeline leak detection systems

Pipeline Leak Detection Systems

Highly accurate inline leak detection systems that can detect leaks and gas pockets in operational pipelines. These systems are used primarily on larger diameter water and wastewater transmission mains of all materials as well as oil & gas pipelines.

Two utilities – TMVW in Belgium and the Department of Sustainable Waste and Water in Gothenburg, Sweden – completed successful inspections to locate leaks and gas pockets using SmartBall® technology in early 2013.

SmartBall® – Leak Detection for Water Trunk Mains

SmartBall® is an innovative free-swimming in-line leak detection technology designed to operate in a live water mains.

In October 2012, Pure Technologies completed its first SmartBall® run in Casablanca, Morocco on 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of 1000-mm (39-inch) Prestressed Concrete Pipe (PCP).

SmartBall was successful in precisely detecting and locating one leak along the transmission main and was tracked throughout the entire inspection by SmartBall Receivers (SBR) installed along the pipeline.

SmartBall is a free-flowing acoustic leak and gas pocket detection tool that is inserted into live pipelines. The tool measures acoustic anomalies associated with leaks and gas pockets, which are then analyzed and verified by data analysts.

Morocco SmartBall

The run in Casablanca was completed by the partnership of Pure Technologies and the Suez Environmental Group on behalf of Lydec, which operates more than 4,600 kilometers (2,850 miles) of pipeline in Casablanca.

Lydec is very pleased with the results of the inspection, as regular leak detection, condition assessment and monitoring of their pipelines is a main priority for the utility. Lydec has been very successful in saving water through various leak detection processes; saving 34 million m3 per year between 1997 and 2011.

 

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Sahara® - Leak & Gas Pocket Detection

Sahara® – Leak Detection for Water Trunk Mains

Leak and gas pocket detection using a tethered acoustic sensor allows for real-time results, and maximum control and sensitivity.

Smartball- Leak and Gas Pocket Detention

SmartBall® – Leak Detection for Water Trunk Mains

SmartBall® is an innovative free-swimming inline leak detection technology designed to operate in a live water mains.